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Salmonella infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis and bacteremia worldwide. The consumption of contaminated water and food and the close contact with colonized animals are frequent risk factors for acquisition. Young infants, persons with hemoglobin disorders, and individuals who have immunocompromising conditions, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, are at risk for severe disease, such as bacteremia, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Clinicians must learn to recognize these infections and know how to effectively treat and prevent them. This review article provides the reader with enhanced knowledge of this diverse group of pathogens.

The genus Salmonella is composed of motile gram-negative bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are oxidase-negative, indole-negative, and nonlactose fermenters. The nomenclature of the genus Salmonella can be challenging. The Centers for...

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