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Pediatric and adolescent sports injuries have increased in the past 20 years because of several factors, including 1. an increase in the annual number of participants in organized sports, including 30 million to 35 million children (1)(2)(3) and 25 million high school students in the United States; (2) 2. an increase in the intensity of training and competition; and 3. participation on multiple teams in a given season or concentration on a single-sport activity at an early age. (1)(4) Approximately 1.5% of athletes, particularly boys between 10 and 14 years of age, will sustain injuries during recreational activities. (5) Sports-related injuries result in 2.5 million emergency department visits annually by adolescent athletes. (2) Pediatricians and emergency department physicians are often the first contacts for these...

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