Pediatricians must be aware of the updated treatment recommendations and the various complications associated with nephrotic syndrome, a common childhood renal disorder.

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Nephrotic syndrome is a disorder of the kidneys that results from increased permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. It is characterized by 4 major clinical characteristics that are used in establishing the diagnosis: proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia. This article reviews nephrotic syndrome in the pediatric population, with special attention paid to minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS).

Nephrotic syndrome can affect children of any age, from infancy to adolescence, and is most commonly seen among school-aged children and adolescents. The prevalence worldwide is approximately 16 cases per 100,000 children with an incidence of 2 to 7 per 100,000 children. (1) Males appear to be more affected than females at a ratio of 2:1 in children, but this...

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