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Birth injury is defined as the structural destruction or functional deterioration of the neonate’s body due to a traumatic event at birth. Some of these injuries are avoidable when appropriate care is available and others are part of the delivery process that can occur even when clinicians practice extreme caution. Amniocentesis and intrauterine transfusions can cause injuries before birth, and these and any injuries that occur following neonatal resuscitation procedures are not considered birth injuries. However, injuries occurring from fetal scalp electrodes and intrapartum heart rate monitoring are considered birth injuries. Over the past 20 years, the number of deaths due to birth injuries has declined such that they no longer are listed in the 10 most common causes of death in the neonatal period.

Macrosomia has been a well-known risk factor for traumatic birth injury. The degree of risk changes...

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