Hydrocephalus is a neurologic condition that requires lifelong vigilance by various health care professionals. Nonsurgical clinicians treating children with hydrocephalus, with or without shunts, often have questions about disease recognition, shunt infection, and shunt malfunction. Imaging modalities such as nonsedated magnetic resonance imaging and nonshunt endoscopic surgery have changed the landscape of the primary pediatric clinician’s interaction with this patient population. This article addresses the practice gap between pediatric outpatient and neurosurgical management of children with hydrocephalus in both the acute and chronic care settings.

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Hydrocephalus in the pediatric population is characterized by an initial increase in intraventricular pressure, resulting in pathologic dilation of the cerebral ventricles with an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although the pressure may be slight or severe, the balance between CSF production, flow, and absorption is lost in hydrocephalus. This condition is a significant cause of...

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