Refeeding syndrome can have potentially devastating metabolic consequences. It is important for the clinician to identify at-risk populations and to evaluate, recognize, and effectively manage this condition.

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Refeeding syndrome was first described in the 1940s. (2) However, there is little consensus on the evaluation and management of this condition, particularly in children. One of the primary reasons for this lack of agreement is the inherent difficulty in studying patients with refeeding syndrome. In the 1940s, the Minnesota Starvation Experiment prospectively examined the effects of prolonged starvation in adults via a randomized, controlled trial, but this remains one of the few experiments of its kind examining this condition. (3) The reason for the dearth of research is likely due to the highly morbid complications of refeeding syndrome and starvation. Scant evidence underlies the treatment recommendations for refeeding syndrome...

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