Hypocalcemia is not uncommon in pediatric practice, but hypercalcemia is. Clinicians should improve their ability to recognize the variants in the differential diagnosis related to parathyroid diseases.

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Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a peptide hormone that is the primary regulator of calcium concentrations in the bloodstream. PTH is released in response to a variety of signals, most importantly in response to low serum calcium concentrations. As a true hormone, it travels through the bloodstream to target tissues, primarily in the bone and kidney, where it has a variety of effects that serve to increase serum calcium, thus providing a correction for the original stimulus for release. PTH serves as an important regulator of bone turnover and in different settings can have either anabolic or catabolic effects in bone. Although PTH can mobilize phosphorus and calcium in bone, it also increases phosphate excretion,...

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