Neonatal jaundice is a common clinical sign that indicates hyperbilirubinemia. Clinicians should become familiar with the differential diagnoses of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns and young infants and the importance of early referral of all patients with cholestatic jaundice to a pediatric gastroenterologist or hepatologist.

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The term jaundice, derived from the French word jaune, meaning yellow, is a yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclerae, and mucous membranes that is caused by tissue deposition of pigmented bilirubin. Jaundice is also known as icterus, from the ancient Greek word ikteros, signifying jaundice. Jaundice is a common clinical sign in newborns, especially during the first 2 weeks after birth. The first description of neonatal jaundice and bilirubin staining of the newborn brain goes back to the eighteenth century. The finding of jaundice on physical examination is an indicator of hyperbilirubinemia. This differs from carotenemia, which...

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