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Child sexual abuse is one of the most challenging forms of child maltreatment encountered by pediatric clinicians. It is a highly emotional topic in our society, and although the legal and medical definitions appear to be relatively straightforward, it is very difficult to operationalize them in real-life circumstances. Social contexts affect awareness and cultural norms. High-profile cases with sports figures and clergy as well as the spread of the Internet, social media, and access to sexualized imagery have raised awareness of this phenomenon but also added to its complexity. (1) Parents look to pediatric clinicians for support and prevention messaging. Societal factors can also influence the interpretation of sexual behaviors, making it difficult to determine what is normal or may be an indicator of abuse. In addition, the gathering of information concerning the event(s) can be difficult, and the...

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