It is often challenging to identify children with abnormal growth patterns and distinguish normal growth variants from pathologic variants.
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Growth parameters are routinely measured in general pediatrics, with the goal of identifying children with abnormalities in growth and stature. Short stature is defined as a height less than 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the mean of the “normal” population, while tall stature is defined as a height greater than 2 SDs above the mean of the normal population. Both single growth measurements and the pattern of growth over time (growth velocity) are useful in identifying children with abnormal stature. The growth velocity changes over time, with relatively rapid growth in infancy and early childhood, followed by slower growth (approximately 5 cm per year) in later childhood and then rapid growth again during puberty. There is a range of pubertal peak growth...