The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Vitamin Excess and Deficiency
Drs Diab and Krebs have disclosed no financial relationships relevant to this article. This commentary does not contain a discussion of an unapproved/investigative use of a commercial product/device.
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Liliane Diab, Nancy F. Krebs; Vitamin Excess and Deficiency. Pediatr Rev April 2018; 39 (4): 161–179. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2016-0068
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