A urinary tract stone, or urolithiasis, is defined as a formation of a stone in the kidney, bladder, or urethra. The epidemiology, imaging modalities, and treatment options for urolithiasis in pediatric patients has significantly evolved in the past several years. Although still more common in adults, the incidence of urolithiasis in children has increased by 6% to 10% annually during the past 20 years, with a current incidence of 36 to 57 per 100,000 US children. The reasons for this change remain unclear, but some hypotheses correlate the increase with obesity and dietary changes. However, current evidence has not confirmed these suspicions. Unlike the male predominance in adults, a strong overall sex preference does not exist in children except that males are more likely to be affected in the first decade of life and females are more likely to be affected in the second decade. Similar to adult stone composition,...

You do not currently have access to this content.