Although tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease, it continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including among children. Knowledge of appropriate TB screening, diagnostic testing, and treatment recommendations is of vital importance for primary care providers when caring for children at high risk for TB.

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One of the most common infectious diseases worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to affect almost 1 in 3 individuals across the globe. Despite relatively cheap and accurate diagnostic assays as well as established effective treatment regimens, TB remains a leading cause of death annually. When diagnosed and appropriately treated, TB mortality in children approaches zero. However, with an estimated yearly burden of 1 million new pediatric cases worldwide and most of these remaining undiagnosed, TB continues to pose a substantial threat to global child health. Furthermore, most pediatric infections in the United States...

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