Persistent bone pain, limp, back pain, fever, headache, and symptoms of anemia and thrombocytopenia are common ways that pediatric leukemia presents. Many of these symptoms can be seen in common childhood illnesses, so a high index of suspicion in patients with persistent symptoms is required to make the diagnosis. The prognosis for these children is excellent, especially in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but survivors of childhood leukemia need to be followed closely for long-term toxicities.

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Leukemia is the most common malignancy of childhood, accounting for 30% of cases of childhood cancer. Although there are some associations between environmental or host factors, most leukemia diagnoses in children are sporadic. There are 3 main subtypes of leukemia: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). ALL is the most common subtype, accounting for approximately 80% of cases. CML is...

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