Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most common chronic bacterial infections. Clinical manifestations include asymptomatic chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in adults. In children, most H pylori infections are asymptomatic despite being associated with microscopic gastric inflammation, and children rarely develop complications associated with infection. Due to rising resistance and lack of symptomatic improvement in the absence of peptic ulcer disease, testing and eradication therapy are recommended only for the subset of patients in whom there is a high suspicion of peptic ulcer disease. Studies do not support the role of H pylori infection in functional disorders such as recurrent abdominal pain. A variety of diagnostic modalities exist; therefore, it is important to understand the appropriate approach to diagnosing H pylori infection. The joint European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines were updated in 2016. Antibiotic and proton pump inhibitor weight-based dosing guidelines have changed to prevent ineffective treatment from increasing antimicrobial resistance. Treatment can also be guided by antibiotic sensitivities obtained from H pylori culture. Patients should be tested again after treatment to confirm eradication.

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