Management of pediatric acute hematogenous osteoarticular infections has changed in various ways during the past decade, including the description of new pathogens and updated diagnostic and treatment strategies (such as infected source sampling and an early switch to oral therapy).

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Pediatric osteoarticular infections (OAIs) include infections of the bones (osteomyelitis) and joints (septic arthritis). Pathogenic organisms may be introduced into these normally sterile sites via direct inoculation (eg, trauma or surgery) or via erosion from a contiguously infected source (eg, chronic ulcer), but organisms are mostly hematogenously delivered. Bacteria are the most common pathogens to cause OAIs, but mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses can also infect these tissues. If diagnosed in the first 10 to 14 days, these infections are considered acute; if diagnosed after 14 days of infection, there is a continuum from subacute to chronic osteomyelitis, with the latter often...

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