Cardiovascular disease remains the top cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Atherosclerotic plaques are known to start in adolescence, and, therefore, young adults can be affected by coronary artery disease. Children with known risk factors, such as genetic predisposition, including familial hyperlipidemias, diabetes, and renal diseases, are at higher risk. With childhood obesity becoming an epidemic in certain parts of the United States, this problem is further highlighted as an important issue affecting children’s health. There are unclear recommendations for pediatricians regarding cholesterol screening of pediatric populations, when to initiate hyperlipidemia treatment with statin therapy, and when to refer to a specialist for further management. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia, recommendations for screening and types of screening, management (including pharmacology), prognosis, and prevention.

You do not currently have access to this content.