Thyroid dysfunction is one of the most common reasons for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. Understanding thyroid physiology and the etiologies and management of common thyroid diseases can improve clinical practice.

After completing this article, readers should be able to:

  1. Recall the basics of thyroid hormone synthesis and physiology.

  2. Describe the etiology and management of common causes of hypothyroidism.

  3. Describe the etiology and management of common causes of hyperthyroidism.

The thyroid hormone axis is an endocrine system with many important actions, including growth and development. As a result, the thyroid hormone axis is also a potential cause of myriad signs and symptoms. Thyroid function is routinely checked as part of the annual physical examination despite the lack of clinical evidence for this practice and the resultant increase in health-care costs. (1)(2)(3)(4)

Concern...

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