A boy was born at 39 weeks and 4 days of gestation to a 32-year-old gravida 2, para 2 mother via spontaneous vaginal delivery with meconium fluid. Apgar scores were 6 (0 for muscle tone and 0 for skin color) and 9 (1 for skin color) at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively, and he received routine resuscitation in the form of warming, drying, and stimulating. He was admitted to the mother-baby unit for routine newborn care and initiated on ampicillin and gentamicin (after routine blood samples were collected) for maternal chorioamnionitis (elevated maternal heart rate and elevated white blood cell count to 10,460/μL [10.46 × 109/L]). He was noted to have left arm weakness secondary to a presumed shoulder dystocia. Five hours after birth the infant was observed to have 2 apneic events with central cyanosis requiring blow-by...

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