A 5-year-old former 34-week girl with trisomy 21, hypothyroidism, and obstructive sleep apnea presents to the emergency department with a chief complaint of fever. She initially presented to her pediatrician 3 weeks earlier with sore throat and was diagnosed as having group A streptococcal pharyngitis. She completed 10 days of amoxicillin with resolution of sore throat. Now for the past 3 days she has had fever, chest pain, decreased enteral intake, and emesis. Review of systems is negative for diarrhea, gross hematuria, dysuria, polyuria, polydipsia, edema, weight loss, rash, arthralgia, arthritis, oral ulcers, epistaxis, and hemoptysis. She has had normal growth. She takes levothyroxine and took several doses of ibuprofen for fever over the past several weeks. There is no family history of kidney disease. She had no recent travel or sick contacts.

On physical examination her weight is 45.2 lb (20.5 kg) (65th percentile); height, 46.1 in (117 cm)...

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