Murmurs are an exceedingly common physical examination finding in pediatric patients. It is imperative that all pediatricians know how to perform a complete cardiac examination and understand the components of benign versus pathologic murmurs.

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The evaluation of murmurs in the pediatric patient has remained a subject of both interest and anxiety for decades. Murmurs are one of the most common physical examination findings in children, and most youth will have a murmur at some point in their life. Given that most murmurs are innocent, it is prudent to differentiate these benign murmurs from those representing underlying cardiac disease. However, with advancements in medical technology and the widespread availability of echocardiography, there is concern about a concomitant decline in cardiac examination skills. This not only has come at great financial expense to the health-care system but also may result in unnecessary increased...

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