The knee is the largest joint in the human body, making it particularly vulnerable to injury. Acute injury can result in ligamentous sprains and strains, dislocations/subluxations, and/or bony fractures either from direct trauma to the joint or indirect stress on previously healthy tissue. Most injuries to the knee involve the surrounding ligaments and/or tendons, with fractures composing an exceedingly small percentage of injuries. Prepubescent children are at greater risk for bony injury because before closure of the physis, tensile bone strength is less than that of ligament and tendon attachments. Once the physis closes, bone tensile strength exceeds that of ligaments/tendons, making ligamentous injury more common in postpubertal children. Although not the subject herein, it is important to remember that aside from traumatic injury, knee pain can be a manifestation of infectious, rheumatic, or oncologic pathology.

Sprains or tears of the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament or the medial or...

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