Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma represent the 2 most common cancers of bone seen in pediatric patients. Given that patients with such tumors can frequently present to nononcologist providers reporting nonspecific symptoms such as musculoskeletal pain or swelling, an understanding of these disease entities by pediatricians is important to ensure appropriate patient referral and care. In addition, because there are a variety of sequelae present in bone sarcoma survivors as a result of disease and treatment, understanding and awareness of such sequelae by nononcologist providers is important for long-term patient care.

After completing this article, readers should be able to:

  1. Understand the incidence and general epidemiology of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, including genetic syndromes that increase the risk of developing sarcomas in children.

  2. Recognize the clinical presentation of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.

  3. Initiate an evaluation to further characterize a new bone or soft tissue lesion.

  4. Describe the prognostic factors associated with...

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