A 35-month-old boy with persistent microscopic hematuria has been followed at our clinic since he was 27 months old, when he presented with a history of persistent microscopic hematuria in serial urinalyses. The patient has a medical history of intrauterine growth restriction, premature birth at 32 weeks, NICU admittance until 36 weeks of corrected age, and umbilical catheterization for 9 days. While in the NICU he had normal findings on an ophthalmologic examination and on universal newborn hearing screening.

His growth charts (Figs 1 and 2) show growth parameters persistently below the third percentile for length/height and weight (World Health Organization charts), which motivated the initial investigation. This investigation included a urinalysis in which the microscopic hematuria was first noticed. After reviewing clinical records from emergency department visits, we noticed that the hematuria had been present since 7 months of age.

His mother has a single kidney (an...

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