Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to occur commonly in hospitalized children. AKI is associated with multiple complications, including elevated blood urea nitrogen level, electrolyte dyscrasias, acidosis, and fluid balance disorders. During the past 10 years, multiple multicenter studies have shown that AKI occurs commonly and is associated with adverse outcomes across a variety of populations in pediatrics. This state-of-the-art review provides a detailed overview and update on AKI, including definition, epidemiology, outcomes, differential diagnosis, diagnostics, and management of complications.
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