The diagnosis of acute proctitis requires understanding who is at risk, being aware of symptoms, and leveraging a thorough sexual history with appropriate risk stratification to make the diagnosis. Cases have been concentrated in adolescents (ages 15–19 years), young adults (ages 20–24 years), men and transgender women who have sex with men, and those with a history of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Black adolescents experience a disproportionately high number of cases of proctitis due to an intersection of concentrated cases in sexual networks and delayed screening/diagnosis due to health care access barriers. Signs and symptoms include purulent discharge, bleeding, pain, tenesmus, pruritus, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, or fever. Multisite sexually transmitted infection testing should be offered based on risk stratification (eg, history of condomless anal sex, oral intercourse, number of sex partners). Further management includes promotion of barrier protection and preexposure prophylaxis, routine surveillance, partner notification, and routine access to preventive immunizations.

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