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Measles is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash beginning on the face and spreading cephalocaudally and centrifugally. During the prodromal period, a pathognomonic enanthema (Koplik spots) may be present. Complications of measles, including otitis media, bronchopneumonia, laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), and diarrhea, occur commonly in young children and immunocompromised hosts. Acute encephalitis, which often results in permanent brain damage, occurs in approximately 1 of every 1000 cases. In the postelimination era in the United States, death, predominantly resulting from respiratory and neurologic complications, has occurred in 1 to 3...

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