Pediatricians are advised to monitor multiple outbreaks of measles across several U.S. states.
- Description: Multiple measles outbreaks
- Number of infections in the US: In 2019, 1,282 cases in 31 states; in 2020, 13 cases in 8 jurisdictions; for 2021, 47 cases reported by 4 jurisdictions (as of 11/10/21).
- Pediatric population affected: All pediatric populations at risk
- The main outbreaks have been associated with travelers who brought measles back from Israel, Ukraine, and the Philippines.
- Cases during 2019 were reported in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Mexico, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington.
- CDC MMWR
- CDC Notes from the Field: Community Outbreak of Measles — Clark County, Washington, 2018–2019
- CDC Notes from the Field: Measles Outbreaks from Imported Cases in Orthodox Jewish Communities — New York and New Jersey, 2018–2019
- Infants and children aged less than 5 years, adults aged more than 20 years, pregnant women, and people with compromised immune systems, such as from cancer, chemotherapy, or HIV infection, are at high risk for severe illness and complications from measles.
- Measles can cause serious illness requiring hospitalization, even in previously healthy children.
- Consider measles in patients with fever and rash and ask about recent international travel, exposure to international travelers, or exposure to people with measles
- Airborne precautions are needed whenever there is any suspicion of measles exposure. Promptly isolate, collect specimens, and report patients with suspected measles.
- During an outbreak, MMR vaccine should be offered to all people exposed or in the outbreak setting who lack evidence of measles immunity. During a community-wide outbreak that affects infants, MMR vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms after exposure and may be recommended for infants 6 through 11 months of age.
- Involvement of state and local health departments is often advisable for any diagnosis of measles, as there may be specific ways these departments wish to receive specimens and manage patients.
- Clinical Manifestations (Red Book)
- Diagnostic Tests (Red Book)
- Treatment (Red Book)
- Control Measures (Red Book)
- Measles can be prevented with measles-containing vaccine, which is administered as the combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.
- CDC Measles 2019 Outbreak Webpage
- CDC Measles Webpage
- CDC Measles Outbreak Toolkits
- CDC Measles Multimedia Webpage
- CDC Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Measles Chapter
- Patient Education
- CDC Measles Outbreak Fact Sheet
- MMR Vaccine VIS
- AAP News articles:
- CDC updates measles vaccination guidance for infants traveling to U.S. outbreak areas
- ID Spotlight: When should measles vaccine be given? What is interval between doses?
- ID Spotlight: What are the indications, precautions, contraindications for MMR vaccination?
- ID Spotlight: Measles associated with numerous complications, death
- HealthyChildren.org articles:
- How to Protect Your Children During a Measles Outbreak
- Protecting Your Baby from a Measles Outbreak FAQs
- What to Tell Families
- An increase in the number of travelers who are exposed to measles abroad and bring the virus into the U.S.
- Further spread in U.S. communities with pockets of unvaccinated people.
- In any given year, measles cases can occur because of:
- Measles starts with fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat. It’s followed by a rash that spreads over the body, head to toe.
- Measles is highly contagious and spreads in the air through coughing and sneezing.
- Make sure you, your children, and whole family are protected by being up to date with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
- Everyone with plans to travel outside of the US should be vaccinated against measles before traveling abroad. Infants 6–11 months old need 1 dose of measles vaccine. Children 12 months and older need 2 doses separated by at least 28 days. More information: (CDC) (Red Book)
- Healthcare professionals should ensure all patients are up to date on MMR vaccine.
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