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Immunization Strategies and Resources

November 17, 2023

Immunization Strategies and Resources for Health Care Professionals from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)

The AAP Committee on Infectious Diseases has compiled a comprehensive list of resources on strategies to improve immunization rates. This news and resource page is updated frequently. AAP membership or subscriber login may be required to access some links.

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Immunization News


graph of measles cases from 2010 through February 3, 2023

Source: Measles Cases and Outbreaks | CDC



Immunization Rates in the United States

Interactive map of immunizations by state:


Percent of children vaccinated by age 24 months:

Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (4+ doses DTP, DT, or DTaP)


Polio (3+ doses)


Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) (1+ doses)


Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (primary series + booster dose)


Hepatitis B (Hep B) (3+ doses)


Chickenpox (Varicella) (1+ doses)


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (4+ doses)


Combined 7-vaccine series


Source: Vaccination Coverage by Age 24 Months Among Children Born During 2018–2019 — National Immunization Survey–Child, United States, 2019–2021


Percent of children vaccinated among kindergarteners:

Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (4+ doses DTP, DT, or DTaP)


Polio (3+ doses)


Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) (2 doses)


Chickenpox (Varicella) (1+ doses)


Hepatitis B (Hep B) (3+ doses)


Source: Vaccination Coverage with Selected Vaccines and Exemption Rates Among Children in Kindergarten — United States, 2021–22 School Year


Vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17:

Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap, 1+ doses)


Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, all required doses)


Meningococcus ACWY (MenACWY, 2+ doses)


Meningococcus B (MenB, 2+ doses)


Hepatitis A (2+ doses)


Hepatitis B (Hep B) (3+ doses)


History of Varicella or Varicella Vaccine (2+ doses)


Source: National Vaccination Coverage Among Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years — National Immunization Survey-Teen, United States, 2021


Immunization Rates and Activity for Selected Viruses


Key Resources



Percent of the Population of the United States Vaccinated by Age and Number of Doses (as of February 15, 2023)


At Least 1 Dose

Completed Primary Series

Updated (Bivalent Booster Dose)

Population >5 years old




Population >12 years old




Population >18 years old




Source: CDC

See the most current COVID-19 immunization rates at


Key Resources


Featured Research Articles About Immunization Rates:


Strategies to Improve Vaccination Rates

  • Find an immunization champion in your practice: An immunization champion can serve as a steward and advocate for immunizations in your practice.
  • Implement patient reminder-recall systems: Immunization reminder-recall systems are cost-effective methods to identify and notify families whose children are due soon for immunizations (reminder) or are already behind (recall). Access tools here: Reminder and Recall Strategies
  • Hold vaccine clinics at hours that are convenient for families: Holding vaccination clinics with special hours (evening or Saturday) at your practice allows for more busy adolescents and their parents to access vaccination services.
  • Give providers feedback: Providers often change their behaviors (eg, clinical practices) based on feedback that they are different from those of their peers.
  • Include all recommended vaccinations at every visit: It is important to vaccinate whenever possible, because you don’t know when a patient will be back in your office. Standing orders are an effective way to help staff get patients vaccinated while in the office.
  • Deliver strong provider recommendations: Studies have shown that parents trust their pediatrician’s guidance and it is important to give a strong recommendation for vaccination
  • Use provider prompts and standing orders: Provider prompts can be electronic prompts in EHRs, notes in charts or any other systematic reminder to administer appropriate immunizations.
  • Educate staff: Provide staff training about evidence-based communication strategies known to improve vaccine confidence.
  • Educate patients and their parents: Take every opportunity to improve vaccine confidence. Educate patients and their parents about each recommended vaccine and the disease it prevents.
  • Manage patient records: Accurate immunization records are essential components of forecasts, reminder-recall reports, and coverage reports.

Access additional information and  tools here: Office Strategies for Improving Immunization Rates


Immunization Resources

2024 Immunization Schedules:  AAP News | Pediatrics | Immunization Schedules




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