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Resources
Published: August 2022
..., and Wisconsin In addition, as of April 23, 2022, 169 cases of acute hepatitis of unknown cause have been reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) from 11 countries in Europe and in the Americas. The cases included children aged 1 month to 16 years, seventeen children (10%) had liver transplants...)
Resources
Published: August 2022
...) that is occurring in 89 locations (countries, territories, and areas) and is caused by the West African clade of monkeypox. The risk of children getting infected with monkeypox virus is low. As of August 3, one pediatric case has been confirmed and there are two suspected cases in the United States (<0.1% of all...)
Resources
Published: August 2022
.... However, RSV activity was low from May 2020 to early March 2021, possibly due to COVID-19 mitigation measures. Instead, some parts of the country have seen rising rates over the last several months, prompting a health advisory from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The AAP interim...)
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_006_002
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... and parasites (1–3 specimens) with specific request for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species testing by direct fluorescent antibody or EIA testing Interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin test In children from countries with endemic infection c...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_006_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Every year, thousands of children arrive in the United States from other countries. They arrive as immigrants, nonimmigrants, refugees or asylum seekers, adoptees, or as undocumented. The medical evaluation of these children is a challenging and important task and is influenced by multiple factors...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_060
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., in whom mortality rates can reach 10% to 25% if infection occurs during the third trimester. Chronic HEV infection is rare and, to date, has only been reported in more developed countries, mostly among organ transplant recipients with immunosuppression. Approximately 60% of recipients of solid organ...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_059
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in resource-limited countries. At least 8 genotypes of HDV have been described, each with a typical geographic pattern, with genotype 1 being found worldwide. Acquisition of HDV is by parenteral transmission from infected blood or body fluids such as through injection drug use or sexual contact. Transmission...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S5_004_004
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Because prophylaxis with topical antimicrobial agents is highly effective in preventing blindness from gonococcal neonatal ophthalmia, it has been mandated by law in many jurisdictions. These mandates have been abandoned in many countries over the last several decades but remain in force in nearly...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_044
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... younger than 2 years and predominantly in resource-limited countries, either sporadically or in epidemics, or in travelers to those settings. Although usually mild, diarrhea can result in dehydration and even death, particularly in resource-limited countries. EPEC diarrhea can be persistent and can result...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_006_009
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...Immunizations Received Outside the United States People immunized in other countries, including international students, internationally adopted children, refugees, and other immigrants, should be immunized according to recommended schedules (including minimal ages and intervals) in the United...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_006_010
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., even in countries perceived to be without substantial risk of infectious diseases. Routine immunizations should be up-to-date before international travel, and some may be administered early or on an accelerated schedule to optimize protection. Vaccines to prevent influenza, typhoid fever, yellow fever...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_107
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... poliovirus is now related only to vaccine use, there was a global switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) in April 2016, thus ending all routine immunization with live type 2 poliovirus-containing oral vaccines. Concurrent recommendations were made for all countries to provide at least one...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_056
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... common mode of transmission is person to person, resulting from fecal contamination and oral ingestion (ie, the fecal-oral route). In resource-limited countries where infection is endemic , most people are infected during the first decade of life. In the United States, rates of HAV infection decreased...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_052
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...% of people living in resource-limited countries and 30% to 40% of people living in industrialized countries. Infection rates in children are low in resource-rich, industrialized countries, except in children from lower socioeconomic groups, immigrants from resource-limited countries, and those living in poor...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_018
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... stools; amoeboid; and cystic . Epidemiology Blastocystis infection is observed commonly throughout the world, although prevalence among countries and communities varies. In the United States, Europe, and Japan, Blastocystis species are recovered from 1% to 20% of stool specimens...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_070
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... and other countries have demonstrated TEM-1 beta-lactamase production resulting in low-level resistance to penicillin and ampicillin. The TEM-1 beta-lactamase is susceptible to beta-lactamase inhibitors and lacks activity against second and third generation cephalosporins. Ampicillin-sulbactam or a first...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in resource-limited countries, where prevalence of amebic infection may be as high as 50% in some communities. Groups at increased risk of infection in industrialized countries include immigrants from or long-term visitors to areas with endemic infection, institutionalized people, and men who have sex...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_079
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., especially primigravid women in areas with endemic infection, and may result in spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Malaria also contributes to low birth weight in countries where P falciparum or P vivax is endemic. Risk of malaria is highest, but variable, for travelers to sub-Saharan...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_065
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... or “woody” edema more commonly seen in adults. In the United States, KS is rare in children and occurs primarily in adults with poorly controlled HIV infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-KS can occur, most notably among HIV-positive children adopted from HHV-8 endemic countries...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_157_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Asia to other regions in Asia, Africa, and the Western Pacific Islands (Oceania). In 1991, epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic V cholerae O1 El Tor appeared in Peru and spread to most countries in South, Central, and North America, causing more than 1 million cases of cholera before subsiding...