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Published: January 2022
... less than 1 year to 101 years, with a median age of 37, and 58% are female. Of 571 people with information available, 183 (32%) have been hospitalized. FDA’s website has a  table  with information about each company’s recall. Clinical Guidance Presentation: Most people infected...)
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_013
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... the growth of microbial pathogens and indigenous anaerobes. BV is diagnosed primarily in sexually active postpubertal females. Symptoms may include vaginal irritation, vaginal discharge, and/or vaginal odor. However, studies have shown that up to 50% of females who meet microbiologic criteria for a diagnosis...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_146
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
.... Untreated infections may persist for months to years. Clinical manifestations in symptomatic pubertal or postpubertal females may include a diffuse vaginal discharge, odor, and vulvovaginal pruritus and irritation . Dysuria and, less often, lower abdominal pain can occur. Vaginal discharge may be any color...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_101
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...134,135 References Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the female upper genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, parametritis, salpingitis, oophoritis, tubo-ovarian...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_103
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... larvae in the small intestine, and adult worms then locate themselves usually in the cecum, appendix, and ascending colon. Adult males die soon after copulating. Gravid females migrate, usually at night while the host is resting, to the perianal area to deposit eggs containing larvae, which mature in 6...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_028_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in prepubertal females; urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, with or without perihepatitis (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome) in postpubertal females; urethritis and epididymitis in males; and reactive arthritis (with the classic triad, formerly known as Reiter syndrome...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_048
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... active females (up to 80% are asymptomatic) and males (around 10% can be asymptomatic). In all age groups, most pharyngeal infections are asymptomatic. Likewise, most rectal infections are asymptomatic; rectal carriage can accompany 20% to 70% of female urogenital infections. Localized disease...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_122
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... that is caused by burrowing of adult female mites in upper layers of the epidermis, creating serpiginous burrows. Itching is most intense at night. In older children and adults, the sites of predilection are interdigital folds, flexor aspects of wrists, extensor surfaces of elbows, anterior axillary folds...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_147
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., Atypical Trichuris species eggs. Trichuriasis (Whipworm Infection) Figure 3 This micrograph of an adult Trichuris female human whipworm reveals that its size is approximately 4 cm. The female Trichuris trichiura worms begin to oviposit in the cecum and ascending colon, 60 to 70...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_008
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... the tracheobronchial tree to the pharynx, are swallowed, and mature into adults in the small intestine. Female worms produce approximately 200 000 eggs per day, which are excreted in stool and must incubate in soil to become infectious. Adult worms can live in the lumen of the small intestine for up to 18 months...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_094
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... eradication nearly achieved, with only 54 human cases worldwide in 2019 Humans Crustacea (copepods) Drinking water infested with infected copepods Identification of emerging or adult worm in subcutaneous tissues; serology available but not necessary Adult female worms Emerging roundworm; inflammatory...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_067
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... to several centimeters; these warts often occur in groups. In males, these warts may be found on the penis , scrotum, anal , or perianal area. In females, these lesions may occur on the vulvar, anal, or perianal areas and less commonly in the vagina or on the cervix. Warts usually are painless, although...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_134
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... contact with contaminated soil. Infections can also be acquired via fecal-oral route with ingestion of food contaminated with human feces containing larvae or from inadvertent coprophagy. Adult females release eggs in the small intestine, where they hatch as first-stage (rhabditiform) larvae...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_005_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... The CDC recommends C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae NAATs from specimens at the sites of penetration as the preferred diagnostic evaluation of the postpubertal sexual assault victims ( Table 2.6 ). Females should be offered testing for T vaginalis using NAATs from a urine...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_090
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... that can be up to several centimeters in diameter containing male and female worms develop 6 to 12 months after initial infection. In patients in Africa, nodules tend to be found on the lower torso, pelvis, and lower extremities, whereas in patients in Central and South America, the nodules more often...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_004_004
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... (preferred) 1–1¼ (25–32 mm) Anterolateral thigh muscle Children, 11–18 years ⅝ b ˗1 (16–25 mm) Deltoid muscle of arm (preferred) 1–1½ (25–38 mm) Anterolateral thigh muscle Adults  Female and male, weight <130 lb 1 (25 mm) c Deltoid muscle of the arm  Female...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_120
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... rarely occur in children but are common in adolescents and adults, especially among females. Encephalitis (1 in 6000 cases) and thrombocytopenia (1 in 3000 cases) are complications. Maternal rubella during pregnancy can result in miscarriage, fetal death, or a constellation of congenital anomalies...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_079
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... falciparum , P vivax , P ovale , P malariae , and P knowlesi . Coinfection with multiple species has been documented. Malaria is endemic throughout the tropical areas of the world and is acquired primarily from the bite of the female Anopheles genus...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_098
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... of eggs to hatching of the first nymph usually is about 1 week (range 6 to 9 days). Lice mature to the adult stage approximately 7 days later. Adult females then may lay eggs , but these will develop only if the female has mated. Identification of eggs, nymphs, and adult lice with the naked eye...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_123
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... exposure, worms develop into adults and females begin egg deposition, which can lead to an acute serum sickness-like illness (Katayama syndrome) that manifests as fever, malaise, cough, rash, abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, diarrhea, nausea, lymphadenopathy, and eosinophilia. This syndrome is most...