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Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_006_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Every year, thousands of children arrive in the United States from other countries. They arrive as immigrants, nonimmigrants, refugees or asylum seekers, adoptees, or as undocumented. The medical evaluation of these children is a challenging and important task and is influenced by multiple factors...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_006_002
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Infectious diseases are among the most common medical diagnoses identified in immigrant, refugee, and internationally adopted children after arrival in the United States, including diseases of long latency in asymptomatic children. Because of inconsistent use of the birth dose of hepatitis B...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_006_009
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...Immunizations Received Outside the United States People immunized in other countries, including international students, internationally adopted children, refugees, and other immigrants, should be immunized according to recommended schedules (including minimal ages and intervals) in the United...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_094
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Parasites are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in various and diverse geographic locations worldwide. Outside the tropics and subtropics, parasitic diseases are common among travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised people. Toxocariasis occurs in the United States, most...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_147
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... are used typically in research settings to quantify fecal egg excretion as a measure of infection intensity. Direct microscopic visualization of eggs using stool concentrating techniques is recommended in routine clinical settings and screening at-risk populations such as immigrants, refugees...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_063
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... targeting preschool-aged and school-aged children have been advocated to prevent morbidity associated with heavy intestinal helminth infections. Certain populations immigrating to the United States (eg, refugees) receive presumptive albendazole treatment for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworm...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in resource-limited countries, where prevalence of amebic infection may be as high as 50% in some communities. Groups at increased risk of infection in industrialized countries include immigrants from or long-term visitors to areas with endemic infection, institutionalized people, and men who have sex...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_107
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., was approximately 1 case per 750 000 doses. Schedule149 Four doses of IPV are recommended for routine immunization of all infants and children in the United States. Refugee and Immigrant Children Refugee and immigrant children should meet...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_149
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... in the United States are immigrants from areas of Latin America with endemic infection. An estimated 300 000 individuals with T cruzi infection live in the United States. Assuming a 1% to 5% risk of congenital transmission, based on estimates of maternal infection, approximately 63 to 315 infants...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_073
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... people with leprosy currently living in the United States, with 3500 under active medical management. The majority of leprosy cases reported in the United States occurred among residents of Texas, California, and Hawaii or among immigrants and other people who lived or worked in countries with endemic...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_052
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...% of people living in resource-limited countries and 30% to 40% of people living in industrialized countries. Infection rates in children are low in resource-rich, industrialized countries, except in children from lower socioeconomic groups, immigrants from resource-limited countries, and those living in poor...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_139
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... individual, animal, or contaminated object such as hat or brush. T violaceum is the dominant organism in eastern Europe and south Asia and is seen more frequently in immigrant populations in the United States. M canis is associated with less than 5% of infections in the United States...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_072
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... cases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been acquired in Texas and occasionally in Oklahoma. In general, the geographic distribution of leishmaniasis cases identified in the United States reflects immigration from and travel patterns to regions with endemic disease. PKDL is confined mainly to 2 regions...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_058
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Diseases for Internationally Adopted, Refugee, and Immigrant Children (p 158) for specific situations when serologic testing is warranted. Counseling of Patients With HCV Infection All people with HCV infection should be considered infectious, should be informed of the possibility of transmission...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_080
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... the interval between doses is 28 days or more. International Adoptees The US Department of State requires that internationally adopted children 10 years and older receive MMR vaccine before entry into the United States. Internationally adopted children who are younger than 10 years are exempt from Immigration...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S1_006_010
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... Children are at risk for illness when traveling internationally, and some may require medical care or hospitalization. US-born children of immigrants are especially likely to travel at young ages to visit relatives. Consultation with a health care provider who is knowledgeable or specializes...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_057
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... recommend increased doses of HepB vaccine for children receiving hemodialysis to increase immunogenicity. People Born in Countries Where the Prevalence of Chronic HBV Infection Is 2% or Greater Foreign-born people (including immigrants, refugees, asylum...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_120
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... of age (see Measles , p 503). Special emphasis must continue to be placed on the immunization of at-risk postpubertal males and females, especially college students, military recruits, recent immigrants, health care professionals, teachers, and child care providers. People who were born in 1957 or after...
Book
Book Cover Image
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... adoptees have been updated in the Medical Evaluation for Infectious Diseases for Internationally Adopted, Refugee, and Immigrant Children chapter. Data on infection risks from discarded needles have been updated in the Injuries From Discarded Needles in the Community chapter. Factors increasing...