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metronidazole

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Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_146
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... different pathogens that cause vaginitis, typically Candida, TV, and bacterial vaginosis. The recommended treatment for TV infection in women is metronidazole, 500 mg, orally, twice daily for 7 days. In men, the recommended treatment is metronidazole 2 g, orally in a single dose. An alternative...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_052
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... for First-Line Therapy for H pylori Infections a , b H pylori Antimicrobial Susceptibilities Suggested First-Line Treatment Susceptible to clarithromycin, susceptible to metronidazole PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin for 14 days c Resistant...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_013
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
.... Treatment considerations should include patient preference for oral versus intravaginal treatment, possible adverse effects, and the presence of coinfections. Nonpregnant females may be treated orally with metronidazole or topically with metronidazole gel 0.75% or clindamycin cream 2% (see Table 4.4, p 899...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_006
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... by moxifloxacin, 400 mg, orally, once daily for 7 days (alternative) T vaginalis (in males who only have sex with females) Metronidazole, 2 g, orally, in a single dose d , e OR Tinidazole, 2 g, orally, in a single dose d , e...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_047
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... persist after treatment. In the United States, giardiasis is a nationally notifiable disease. Some infections are self-limited, and treatment may not be required. Tinidazole, metronidazole, and nitazoxanide are the drugs of choice (see Table 4.11, p 961). Although not FDA approved for this indication...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S5_002_008
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
...) OR Metronidazole 15 mg/kg (max 500 mg) PLUS Gentamicin 2.5 mg/kg OR Cefazoline 30 mg/kg (max 2 g; 3 g if ≥120 kg) PLUS Metronidazole 15 mg/kg (max 500 mg)  Ruptured viscus (regarded as treatment, not prophylaxis) Enteric gram-negative bacilli, a enterococci, anaerobes...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_029_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... for Clostridioides difficile Disease Severity Recommendation First Occurrence Mild-moderate Metronidazole, 30 mg/kg/day, PO, every 6 h (preferred), or IV, every 6 h for 10 days (maximum 500 mg/dose) If failure to respond in 5–7 days: Consider switch to vancomycin, 40 mg/kg/day, PO...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_018
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... for patients who have persistent symptoms and in whom no other pathogen or process is found to explain the gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Randomized controlled treatment trials with both metronidazole and nitazoxanide have demonstrated benefit in symptomatic patients, although microbiologic resolution does...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... is not currently available in the United States]). (See Table 4.11, Drugs for Parasitic Infections, p 958–959). Metronidazole and tinidazole are not effective against cysts. Patients with invasive colitis manifesting as mild, moderate, or severe intestinal tract symptoms or extraintestinal disease (including...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_046
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
.... Fusobacterium species generally are susceptible to metronidazole, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, penicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (ampicillin-sulbactam or piperacillin-tazobactam), carbapenem, cefoxitin, and ceftriaxone. Antimicrobial resistance has increased in anaerobic bacteria...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_015
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... is tetracycline (see Drugs for Parasitic Infections , p 953). Alternative drugs are metronidazole (or tinidazole), iodoquinol, and nitazoxanide. Standard and contact precautions are recommended, because human-to-human transmission can occur rarely. Control measures include sanitary disposal of human and porcine...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_011
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... ≥8 y: 40 mg/kg/day (max 2 g per day), orally, in 4 doses for 10 days www.cdc.gov/parasites/balantidium/health_professionals/index.html OR Metronidazole 500–750 mg, orally, 3 times daily for 5 days 35–50 mg/kg/day, orally, in 3 doses for 5 days (max 500–750 mg/dose...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_007
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... gentamicin or a macrolide, and with consideration of metronidazole if Fusobacterium infection is suspected. Standard precautions are recommended. None. Clinical Manifestations Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Infections Figure 1 Arcanobacterium haemolyticum was isolated...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_029_002
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... be used following multiple débridements. Management of shock, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, hemolytic anemia, and other complications is crucial. High-dose penicillin G should be administered intravenously (see Table 4.3, p 892). Clindamycin, metronidazole, meropenem, ertapenem...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_012
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... drainage Mild-moderate : Ceftriaxone PLUS Metronidazole Severe or hospital onset : Piperacillin-tazobactam OR Ciprofloxacin PLUS Metronidazole 4–7 days May need longer duration if insufficient source control Mild-moderate infection includes complicated appendicitis with rupture, absent sepsis Solomkin...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_014
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... species of the gastrointestinal tract are often resistant to penicillin G but typically susceptible to metronidazole, beta-lactam plus beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and chloramphenicol, but resistance is emerging to clindamycin. More than 80% of isolates are susceptible to cefoxitin...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_138
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... is present. In neonatal tetanus, wide excision of the umbilical stump is not indicated. Supportive care and pharmacotherapy to control tetanic spasms and autonomic instability are of major importance. Oral (or intravenous) metronidazole is effective in decreasing the number of vegetative forms of C...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S3_001
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
..., linezolid, and imipenem/meropenem also show high activity in vitro, but the latter antimicrobials have extended spectrums, which may not always be required. All Actinomyces species appear to be resistant to ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Doxycycline is not typically recommended for children...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S4_005
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... every 12 h 10 mg/kg every 8 h 10 mg/kg every 8 h 10 mg/kg every 8 h Drug Route PMA ≤34 wk PMA 35–40 wk PMA >40 wk Metronidazole h IV 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h 7.5 mg/kg every 8 h 10 mg/kg every 8 h Aminoglycosides Drug Route GA <30 wk GA...
Book Chapter
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Published: January 2021
DOI: 10.1542/9781610025782-S2_005_003
EISBN: 978-1-61002-578-2
... PLUS (IF FEMALE) Metronidazole, 500 mg, orally, twice daily for 7 days For hepatitis B virus infection See Table 3.22, p 398 For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection See Fig 2.1 , p 157, and text. For HPV HPV vaccine series should be initiated at ≥9 y if not already begun...