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TABLE 3

Heterogeneity in TbT Intervention Effects on Literacy

nEstimated Effect95% CIP
Full sample 275 0.209 0.039 to 0.378 .016 
Child birth order     
 Firstborn 95 0.282 0.021 to 0.542 .034 
 Not firstborn 164 0.178 −0.053 to 0.408 .131 
Family structure     
 Single-parent family 60 0.063 −0.257 to 0.383 .700 
 Not single-parent family 199 0.262 0.063 to 0.461 .010 
Caregiver language     
 English 127 0.238 0.003 to 0.473 .047 
 Spanish 148 0.188 −0.048 to 0.423 .119 
Caregiver education     
 Less than high school 95 0.184 −0.113 to 0.480 .225 
 High school 90 0.186 −0.108 to 0.479 .215 
 Some college or more 77 0.221 −0.083 to 0.525 .154 
Child baseline age, category     
 ≥48 mo 86 0.436 0.116 to 0.755 .008 
 <48 mo 189 0.107 −0.088 to 0.302 .283 
nEstimated Effect95% CIP
Full sample 275 0.209 0.039 to 0.378 .016 
Child birth order     
 Firstborn 95 0.282 0.021 to 0.542 .034 
 Not firstborn 164 0.178 −0.053 to 0.408 .131 
Family structure     
 Single-parent family 60 0.063 −0.257 to 0.383 .700 
 Not single-parent family 199 0.262 0.063 to 0.461 .010 
Caregiver language     
 English 127 0.238 0.003 to 0.473 .047 
 Spanish 148 0.188 −0.048 to 0.423 .119 
Caregiver education     
 Less than high school 95 0.184 −0.113 to 0.480 .225 
 High school 90 0.186 −0.108 to 0.479 .215 
 Some college or more 77 0.221 −0.083 to 0.525 .154 
Child baseline age, category     
 ≥48 mo 86 0.436 0.116 to 0.755 .008 
 <48 mo 189 0.107 −0.088 to 0.302 .283 

Each row represents an individual model estimating the effect of the intervention on PALS-PreK standardized score, stratified by each of the groups listed above. All models are adjusted for baseline PALS-PreK score, child baseline age, and caregiver language.

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