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TABLE 2

Mechanisms Leading to Cerebral Palsy

TimingType of MechanismExamples
Prenatal Intrauterine pathologic processes Placental vascular disease 
  Intrauterine growth retardation 
  Infection with fetal inflammatory response 
  Congenital or genetic anomalies 
Peri-natal Peri-partum events Birth asphyxia 
  Chorioamnionitis 
  Placental abruption 
Postnatal Neonatal complications Intraventricular hemorrhage 
  Sepsis or meningitis 
  Periventricular leukomalacia 
 Late complications Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury 
  Nonaccidental trauma 
  Meningitis or encephalitis 
TimingType of MechanismExamples
Prenatal Intrauterine pathologic processes Placental vascular disease 
  Intrauterine growth retardation 
  Infection with fetal inflammatory response 
  Congenital or genetic anomalies 
Peri-natal Peri-partum events Birth asphyxia 
  Chorioamnionitis 
  Placental abruption 
Postnatal Neonatal complications Intraventricular hemorrhage 
  Sepsis or meningitis 
  Periventricular leukomalacia 
 Late complications Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury 
  Nonaccidental trauma 
  Meningitis or encephalitis 

Adapted from Figure 1, (Stavsky, Mor et al 2017). Reproduced with permission from “Children and Youth with Complex Cerebral Palsy: Care and Management” edited by Laurie Glader and Richard Stevenson. Published by Mac Keith Press (www.mackeith.co.uk), 2019, 978-1-909-96298-9.

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