TABLE 2

Breastfeeding and Infant Outcomesa

Outcome and Reference% Lower RiskBreastfeedingaCompared With:CommentsbOR, RR, or HR95% CI
SIDS87  40 2–4 mo None Breastfeed at least 2 mo to reduce SIDS OR 0.60 0.44–0.82 
 60 4–6 mo None  OR 0.40 0.26–0.63 
 64 >6 mo None  OR 0.36 0.22–0.61 
Infant mortality, United States88  19 Ever Never US cohort OR 0.81 0.68–0.97 
Neonatal mortality (8–27 d)88  51 Ever Never US cohort OR 0.49 0.34–0.72 
Postneonatal mortality 21 Ever Never US nationally representative sample OR 0.79 0.67–0.93 
 38 >3 mo Never  OR 0.62 0.46–0.82 
Infant mortality (7–365 d) 26 Ever Never US national cohort OR 0.74 0.70-0.79 
Neonatal mortality (7–27 d) 40 Ever Never US national cohort 0.60 0.54-0.67 
Postneonatal mortality (28–364 d) 19 Ever Never US national cohort 0.81 0.76-0.87 
Infant mortality, developing countries89  33 Exclusive Predominant  RR 0.67 0.52–0.88 
 79 Exclusive Partial  RR 0.21 0.20–0.22 
 93 Exclusive None  RR 0.07 0.03–0.16 
Infant mortality, developing countries90  25 Initiated in first hour >1st hour  RR 0.75 0.64–0.88 
Lower respiratory tract infection91  19 Exclusive 6 mo Exclusive <4 mo Cohort RR 0.81 0.69–0.95 
Severe or persistent diarrhea91  30 Exclusive 6 mo Exclusive <4 mo Cohort RR 0.70 0.52–0.94 
Otitis media92  33 Ever Never  OR 0.67 0.56–0.80 
 33 More Less  OR 0.67 0.59–0.76 
 43 Exclusive 6 mo None  OR 0.57 0.44–0.80 
Asthma 5–18 y93  10 More Less  OR 0.90 0.84–0.97 
 12 Ever Never  OR 0.88 0.82–0.95 
Asthma ever, all ages94  22 Longer Shorter Most protective for wheezing in first 2 y OR 0.78 0.74–0.84 
Eczema first, 2 y93  26 Exclusive 3–4 mo Shorter  OR 0.74 0.57–0.0.97 
Crohn’s disease95  29 Ever Never  OR 0.71 0.59–0.85 
 80 12 mo 3–6 mo  OR 0.20 0.08–0.50 
Ulcerative colitis95  22 Ever Never  OR 0.78 0.67–0.91 
 79 12 mo 3–6 mo  OR 0.21 0.10–0.43 
Childhood obesity96  22 Ever Never  OR 0.78 0.74–0.81 
 10 <3 mo Never  OR 0.90 0.84–0.95 
 12 3–5 mo Never  OR 0.88 0.79–0.97 
 17 5–7 mo Never  OR 0.83 0.76–0.90 
 21 >7 mo Never  OR 0.79 0.70–0.88 
Childhood and adult obesity97  23 Ever Never  OR 0.77 0.69–0.86 
 26 Greater Less  OR 0.74 0.68–0.80 
 31 Exclusive Nonexclusive  OR 0.69 0.61–0.79 
Childhood obesity98  18 >6 mo Never European pooled analysis OR 0.82 0.78–0.86 
 11 >6 mo <6 mo  OR 0.89 0.86–0.93 
 20 Exclusive 6 mo Nonexclusive  OR 0.8 0.74–0.85 
Type 1 diabetes99  57 Fully breastfeeding 6 mo Never Cohort HR 0.43 0.21–0.90 
 56 12 mo Never Cohort HR 0.44 0.22–0.88 
Type 2 diabetes100  33 Ever Never  OR 0.67 0.56–0.80 
Leukemia101  11 Ever Never  OR 0.89 0.84–0.94 
 19 6 mo None or Shorter  OR 0.81 0.73–0.89 
Outcome and Reference% Lower RiskBreastfeedingaCompared With:CommentsbOR, RR, or HR95% CI
SIDS87  40 2–4 mo None Breastfeed at least 2 mo to reduce SIDS OR 0.60 0.44–0.82 
 60 4–6 mo None  OR 0.40 0.26–0.63 
 64 >6 mo None  OR 0.36 0.22–0.61 
Infant mortality, United States88  19 Ever Never US cohort OR 0.81 0.68–0.97 
Neonatal mortality (8–27 d)88  51 Ever Never US cohort OR 0.49 0.34–0.72 
Postneonatal mortality 21 Ever Never US nationally representative sample OR 0.79 0.67–0.93 
 38 >3 mo Never  OR 0.62 0.46–0.82 
Infant mortality (7–365 d) 26 Ever Never US national cohort OR 0.74 0.70-0.79 
Neonatal mortality (7–27 d) 40 Ever Never US national cohort 0.60 0.54-0.67 
Postneonatal mortality (28–364 d) 19 Ever Never US national cohort 0.81 0.76-0.87 
Infant mortality, developing countries89  33 Exclusive Predominant  RR 0.67 0.52–0.88 
 79 Exclusive Partial  RR 0.21 0.20–0.22 
 93 Exclusive None  RR 0.07 0.03–0.16 
Infant mortality, developing countries90  25 Initiated in first hour >1st hour  RR 0.75 0.64–0.88 
Lower respiratory tract infection91  19 Exclusive 6 mo Exclusive <4 mo Cohort RR 0.81 0.69–0.95 
Severe or persistent diarrhea91  30 Exclusive 6 mo Exclusive <4 mo Cohort RR 0.70 0.52–0.94 
Otitis media92  33 Ever Never  OR 0.67 0.56–0.80 
 33 More Less  OR 0.67 0.59–0.76 
 43 Exclusive 6 mo None  OR 0.57 0.44–0.80 
Asthma 5–18 y93  10 More Less  OR 0.90 0.84–0.97 
 12 Ever Never  OR 0.88 0.82–0.95 
Asthma ever, all ages94  22 Longer Shorter Most protective for wheezing in first 2 y OR 0.78 0.74–0.84 
Eczema first, 2 y93  26 Exclusive 3–4 mo Shorter  OR 0.74 0.57–0.0.97 
Crohn’s disease95  29 Ever Never  OR 0.71 0.59–0.85 
 80 12 mo 3–6 mo  OR 0.20 0.08–0.50 
Ulcerative colitis95  22 Ever Never  OR 0.78 0.67–0.91 
 79 12 mo 3–6 mo  OR 0.21 0.10–0.43 
Childhood obesity96  22 Ever Never  OR 0.78 0.74–0.81 
 10 <3 mo Never  OR 0.90 0.84–0.95 
 12 3–5 mo Never  OR 0.88 0.79–0.97 
 17 5–7 mo Never  OR 0.83 0.76–0.90 
 21 >7 mo Never  OR 0.79 0.70–0.88 
Childhood and adult obesity97  23 Ever Never  OR 0.77 0.69–0.86 
 26 Greater Less  OR 0.74 0.68–0.80 
 31 Exclusive Nonexclusive  OR 0.69 0.61–0.79 
Childhood obesity98  18 >6 mo Never European pooled analysis OR 0.82 0.78–0.86 
 11 >6 mo <6 mo  OR 0.89 0.86–0.93 
 20 Exclusive 6 mo Nonexclusive  OR 0.8 0.74–0.85 
Type 1 diabetes99  57 Fully breastfeeding 6 mo Never Cohort HR 0.43 0.21–0.90 
 56 12 mo Never Cohort HR 0.44 0.22–0.88 
Type 2 diabetes100  33 Ever Never  OR 0.67 0.56–0.80 
Leukemia101  11 Ever Never  OR 0.89 0.84–0.94 
 19 6 mo None or Shorter  OR 0.81 0.73–0.89 

CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk.

a

Not necessarily exclusive breastfeeding unless specifically written.

b

Data are from meta-analyses, unless another type of study is written.

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