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TABLE 1

Definitions of Select Covariates

CategoryCovariateDefinition
Participant characteristics Prematurity Gestational age <37 wk 
Comorbidities Congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, immunodeficiency, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, HIV, sickle cell disease, chronic neurologic problems 
Family history History of kidney disease, nephrolithiasis, genitourinary tract anomalies, and VUR in an immediate family member 
Illness characteristics Uropathogen E coli or non–E coli 
Common contaminants were excludeda 
Pediatric SIRS ≥2 criteria, but 1 criterion must be abnormal temperature or leukocyte count 
Four criteria 
 Temperature >38.5°C or <36.0°C 
 Tachycardia or bradycardia by using age-specific parameters 
 Tachypnea or initiation of mechanical ventilation 
 Abnormal leukocyte count or >10% bands 
Bacteremia Growth of any bloodborne pathogen 
Contaminants were excludedb 
PNUS characteristics PNUS result General result of last PNUS performed in pregnancy by caregiver report; classified as either normal or abnormal 
PNUS genitourinary abnormalities Of those with abnormal PNUS, abnormalities specifically related to the kidney, ureter, or bladder by caregiver report 
CategoryCovariateDefinition
Participant characteristics Prematurity Gestational age <37 wk 
Comorbidities Congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, immunodeficiency, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, HIV, sickle cell disease, chronic neurologic problems 
Family history History of kidney disease, nephrolithiasis, genitourinary tract anomalies, and VUR in an immediate family member 
Illness characteristics Uropathogen E coli or non–E coli 
Common contaminants were excludeda 
Pediatric SIRS ≥2 criteria, but 1 criterion must be abnormal temperature or leukocyte count 
Four criteria 
 Temperature >38.5°C or <36.0°C 
 Tachycardia or bradycardia by using age-specific parameters 
 Tachypnea or initiation of mechanical ventilation 
 Abnormal leukocyte count or >10% bands 
Bacteremia Growth of any bloodborne pathogen 
Contaminants were excludedb 
PNUS characteristics PNUS result General result of last PNUS performed in pregnancy by caregiver report; classified as either normal or abnormal 
PNUS genitourinary abnormalities Of those with abnormal PNUS, abnormalities specifically related to the kidney, ureter, or bladder by caregiver report 
a

Contaminants on urine culture: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Diphtheroids, and Bacillus species.20 

b

Contaminants on blood culture: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, viridans group Streptococcus or α Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Bacillus were considered contaminants.22 

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