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TABLE 1

Adjusted Odds of NUD Among Adolescents in the Pediatric Hospital (2012–2019)

CharacteristicaOR (95% CI)P
Year (2012–2019) 1.04 (1.03–1.05) <.001 
Year (2012–2015) 1.08 (1.06–1.11) <.001 
Age, y   
 11 Reference — 
 12 3.02 (2.32–3.94) <.001 
 13 7.33 (5.75–9.36) <.001 
 14 16.65 (13.16–21.08) <.001 
 15 31.85 (25.23–40.20) <.001 
 16 48.58 (38.53–61.25) <.001 
 17 73.42 (58.25–92.52) <.001 
 18 63.95 (50.55–80.90) <.001 
Sex   
 Female Reference — 
 Male 1.07 (1.04–1.11) <.001 
Race and/or ethnicity   
 Non-Hispanic Black Reference — 
 Non-Hispanic white 1.52 (1.44–1.59) <.001 
 Hispanic 0.92 (0.86–0.98) .009 
 Other 1.13 (1.05–1.22) .001 
Payer type   
 Other Reference — 
 Government 2.19 (1.95–2.46) <.001 
 Commercial 1.06 (0.94–1.19) .356 
 Self-pay 2.32 (2.02–2.67) <.001 
Admission type   
 ED Reference — 
 Inpatient or observation 10.65 (10.25–11.07) <.001 
Median household income quartile   
 Quartile 1 1.14 (1.09–1.21) <.001 
 Quartile 2 1.21 (1.15–1.27) <.001 
 Quartile 3 1.13 (1.08–1.19) <.001 
 Quartile 4 Reference — 
Hospital US Census region   
 South Reference — 
 Midwest 2.10 (1.07–4.11) .032 
 Northeast 1.12 (0.49–2.57) .787 
 West 1.09 (0.59–2.04) .778 
CharacteristicaOR (95% CI)P
Year (2012–2019) 1.04 (1.03–1.05) <.001 
Year (2012–2015) 1.08 (1.06–1.11) <.001 
Age, y   
 11 Reference — 
 12 3.02 (2.32–3.94) <.001 
 13 7.33 (5.75–9.36) <.001 
 14 16.65 (13.16–21.08) <.001 
 15 31.85 (25.23–40.20) <.001 
 16 48.58 (38.53–61.25) <.001 
 17 73.42 (58.25–92.52) <.001 
 18 63.95 (50.55–80.90) <.001 
Sex   
 Female Reference — 
 Male 1.07 (1.04–1.11) <.001 
Race and/or ethnicity   
 Non-Hispanic Black Reference — 
 Non-Hispanic white 1.52 (1.44–1.59) <.001 
 Hispanic 0.92 (0.86–0.98) .009 
 Other 1.13 (1.05–1.22) .001 
Payer type   
 Other Reference — 
 Government 2.19 (1.95–2.46) <.001 
 Commercial 1.06 (0.94–1.19) .356 
 Self-pay 2.32 (2.02–2.67) <.001 
Admission type   
 ED Reference — 
 Inpatient or observation 10.65 (10.25–11.07) <.001 
Median household income quartile   
 Quartile 1 1.14 (1.09–1.21) <.001 
 Quartile 2 1.21 (1.15–1.27) <.001 
 Quartile 3 1.13 (1.08–1.19) <.001 
 Quartile 4 Reference — 
Hospital US Census region   
 South Reference — 
 Midwest 2.10 (1.07–4.11) .032 
 Northeast 1.12 (0.49–2.57) .787 
 West 1.09 (0.59–2.04) .778 

PHIS data were extracted through September 2019. —, not applicable.

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