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TABLE 1

Characteristics of Included Studies

StudyCountrySample SizeAge, mo, Median (IQR) or Mean (SD)Primary Diagnosis, %Percent With ComorbiditiesIntCompViral Test TypeViral Test Turnaround Time, hOutcomes Reporteda
Prospective cohort studies           
 Adcock et al29  United States 160 Int: 3.1 (NR); Comp: 3.6 (NR) NR RSV+ RSV− RADT 1, 2, 5 
 Bozdemir et al31  Turkey 671 Int: 4 (NR); Comp: 7 (NR) Bronchiolitis (48); pneumonia (42) NR RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 
 Bueno et al32  Brazil 21 Int: 2.4 (2.5)b; Comp: 3.2 (1.9)b NR 43.0 RSV+ RSV− NAAT NR 1, 5 
 Hatipoğlu et al36  Turkey 147 Int: 13.6 (15.9)c; Comp: 14.7 (15.8)c Bronchiolitis (56); pneumonia (44) 17.0 Virus+ Virus− RADT, immunofluorescence assay, NAAT, culture NR 1, 5 
 Manji et al37  United States 603 NR NR NR RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay, culture NR 1, 2, 5 
 Nitsch-Osuch et al40  Poland 52 NR Influenza (29); pneumonia (21) 12.7 lnfluenza+ Influenza− NAAT NR 1, 6 
 Suntarattiwong et al45 d Thailand 354 First Int: 7.3 (2.8)c; second Int: 7 (3.4)c; Comp: 7 (3)c Pneumonia (73) 23.2 RSV+ and/or influenza+ RSV− and/or influenza− NAAT NR 1, 5, 6 
 Tsung et al48  Hong Kong 469 NR Bronchiolitis (69); pneumonia (10) NR Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 24 
 van de Pol et al49  Netherlands 38 Total: 1.6 (8.8)b Bronchiolitis (53); pneumonia (48) 36.6 Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay, NAAT 
Retrospective cohort studies           
 Azzarone et al30  United States 462 Total: 6.5 (NR)c Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 1, 4 
 Byington et al33  (season 1) United States 229 Total: 29 (NR)c Bronchiolitis (37); pneumonia (12) NR Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 8.6 
 Ferronato et al34  Brazil 211 Total: 4 (2.7)c Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 40 1, 3 
 Flaherman et al35  United States 1727 NR Bronchiolitis (100) 10.3 RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay NR 
 Milić et al39  Croatia 193 Int: 2.3 (1.4–3.2); Comp: 4.8 (2.1–7.5) Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 
 McCulloh et al38  (test versus no test) United States 1727 Int: 3.3e; Comp: 4.1e Bronchiolitis (28); pneumonia (50) 43 RV test No RV test NAAT 20 1, 4, 6 
 McCulloh et al38  (positive versus negative result) United States 809 Total: 3.3e Bronchiolitis (36); pneumonia (55) 44.8 Virus+ Virus− NAAT 20 1, 4 
 Paul et al41 f United Kingdom 319 First Int: 2.9 (NR); second Int: 3.1 (NR); Comp: 3.6 (NR) Bronchiolitis (100) 21.0g RSV+ and/or rhinovirus+ Virus− RADT, PCR NR 1, 4, 5 
 Schulert et al42  United States 717 Int: 12 (NR); Comp: 36 (NR) Bronchiolitis and RSV pneumonia (14.6); other pneumonia (17) 12.1 Virus+ Virus− NAAT 24 1, 2, 5 
 Schulert et al43  United States 202 Int: 12 (3.6–48); Comp: 36 (3.6–96) Pneumonia (100) Virus+ Virus− NAAT 24 1, 2, 5 
 Thibeault et al21  Canada 198 NR Bronchiolitis (91) 39.0 RSV+ RSV− RADT, NAAT NR 
 Tresoldi et al46  Brazil 61 Int: 10.6 (NR); Comp: 8.8 (NR) NR 54.0g lnfluenza+ Influenza− NAAT NR 
 Walls et al50  New Zealand 237 Total: 26 (NR)c Pneumonia (100) RV test No RV test NAAT NR 1, 3 
Case-control studies           
 Sulieman et al44  United States 200 NR NR NR RSV+ and/or influenza+ RSV− and/or influenza− Culture 48 
Mix of prospective and retrospective           
 Tsolia et al47  Greece 473 Int: 2.8 (NR); Comp: 4.5 (NR) Bronchiolitis (100) 2.5 RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay NR 1, 4, 5 
StudyCountrySample SizeAge, mo, Median (IQR) or Mean (SD)Primary Diagnosis, %Percent With ComorbiditiesIntCompViral Test TypeViral Test Turnaround Time, hOutcomes Reporteda
Prospective cohort studies           
 Adcock et al29  United States 160 Int: 3.1 (NR); Comp: 3.6 (NR) NR RSV+ RSV− RADT 1, 2, 5 
 Bozdemir et al31  Turkey 671 Int: 4 (NR); Comp: 7 (NR) Bronchiolitis (48); pneumonia (42) NR RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 
 Bueno et al32  Brazil 21 Int: 2.4 (2.5)b; Comp: 3.2 (1.9)b NR 43.0 RSV+ RSV− NAAT NR 1, 5 
 Hatipoğlu et al36  Turkey 147 Int: 13.6 (15.9)c; Comp: 14.7 (15.8)c Bronchiolitis (56); pneumonia (44) 17.0 Virus+ Virus− RADT, immunofluorescence assay, NAAT, culture NR 1, 5 
 Manji et al37  United States 603 NR NR NR RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay, culture NR 1, 2, 5 
 Nitsch-Osuch et al40  Poland 52 NR Influenza (29); pneumonia (21) 12.7 lnfluenza+ Influenza− NAAT NR 1, 6 
 Suntarattiwong et al45 d Thailand 354 First Int: 7.3 (2.8)c; second Int: 7 (3.4)c; Comp: 7 (3)c Pneumonia (73) 23.2 RSV+ and/or influenza+ RSV− and/or influenza− NAAT NR 1, 5, 6 
 Tsung et al48  Hong Kong 469 NR Bronchiolitis (69); pneumonia (10) NR Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 24 
 van de Pol et al49  Netherlands 38 Total: 1.6 (8.8)b Bronchiolitis (53); pneumonia (48) 36.6 Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay, NAAT 
Retrospective cohort studies           
 Azzarone et al30  United States 462 Total: 6.5 (NR)c Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 1, 4 
 Byington et al33  (season 1) United States 229 Total: 29 (NR)c Bronchiolitis (37); pneumonia (12) NR Virus+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 8.6 
 Ferronato et al34  Brazil 211 Total: 4 (2.7)c Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ Virus− Immunofluorescence assay 40 1, 3 
 Flaherman et al35  United States 1727 NR Bronchiolitis (100) 10.3 RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay NR 
 Milić et al39  Croatia 193 Int: 2.3 (1.4–3.2); Comp: 4.8 (2.1–7.5) Bronchiolitis (100) RSV+ RSV− RADT NR 
 McCulloh et al38  (test versus no test) United States 1727 Int: 3.3e; Comp: 4.1e Bronchiolitis (28); pneumonia (50) 43 RV test No RV test NAAT 20 1, 4, 6 
 McCulloh et al38  (positive versus negative result) United States 809 Total: 3.3e Bronchiolitis (36); pneumonia (55) 44.8 Virus+ Virus− NAAT 20 1, 4 
 Paul et al41 f United Kingdom 319 First Int: 2.9 (NR); second Int: 3.1 (NR); Comp: 3.6 (NR) Bronchiolitis (100) 21.0g RSV+ and/or rhinovirus+ Virus− RADT, PCR NR 1, 4, 5 
 Schulert et al42  United States 717 Int: 12 (NR); Comp: 36 (NR) Bronchiolitis and RSV pneumonia (14.6); other pneumonia (17) 12.1 Virus+ Virus− NAAT 24 1, 2, 5 
 Schulert et al43  United States 202 Int: 12 (3.6–48); Comp: 36 (3.6–96) Pneumonia (100) Virus+ Virus− NAAT 24 1, 2, 5 
 Thibeault et al21  Canada 198 NR Bronchiolitis (91) 39.0 RSV+ RSV− RADT, NAAT NR 
 Tresoldi et al46  Brazil 61 Int: 10.6 (NR); Comp: 8.8 (NR) NR 54.0g lnfluenza+ Influenza− NAAT NR 
 Walls et al50  New Zealand 237 Total: 26 (NR)c Pneumonia (100) RV test No RV test NAAT NR 1, 3 
Case-control studies           
 Sulieman et al44  United States 200 NR NR NR RSV+ and/or influenza+ RSV− and/or influenza− Culture 48 
Mix of prospective and retrospective           
 Tsolia et al47  Greece 473 Int: 2.8 (NR); Comp: 4.5 (NR) Bronchiolitis (100) 2.5 RSV+ RSV− Immunofluorescence assay NR 1, 4, 5 

Comp, comparison; Int, intervention; IQR, interquartile range; NR, not reported; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; +, positive; –, negative.

a

1, proportion who received antibiotics; 2, duration of antibiotics; 3, proportion in whom antibiotics were stopped; 4, proportion who received ancillary tests; 5, length of stay; and 6, proportion who received antiviral agents.

b

Median (IQR) reported.

c

Mean (SD) reported.

d

First intervention = intervention group with influenza, and second intervention = intervention group with RSV.

e

Study authors do not state if mean or median. It includes prematurity because the study authors do not present underlying conditions (chronic pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, etc) separately.

f

First intervention = intervention group with RSV, and second intervention = intervention group with rhinovirus.

g

Twenty-one percent of patients in control group had ≥2 risk factors (defined as prematurity, congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and/or genetic conditions).

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