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TABLE 2

Characteristics of Included Prospective Cohort Studies

SourceStudy Population and LocationSample SizeMean (± SD) Baseline Age, yMean (± SD) Baseline BMI, kg/m2Mean (± SD) Baseline Daily 100% Fruit Juice Intake, ozMean Follow-up LengthDietary AssessmentOutcome AssessmentCovariatesEnergy adjustment
Dong, 201534  46% boys, 54% girls, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, United Kingdom 4646 7.5 ± 0.3 16.2 ± 2.0 4.4 6 y 3-d food diary filled out by subject and parent (repeated 3 y apart) Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice Physical activity, pubertal stage, maternal education, consumption of 26 food groups. Sensitivity analyses by age and sex No 
Faith, 200620  53% boys, 47% girls, New York Women, Infants, and Children program data, United States 825 2.5 ± 0.8 16.7 18.0 ± 7.2 2 y Parental food frequency questionnaire Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice Age, baseline weight-for-height z score, food and beverage intake, parental feeding styles, parental feeding attitudes No 
Field, 200336  55% boys, 45% girls, Growing Up Today Study, United States 14 918 11.9 ± 1.6 19.1 ± 3.3  6.8 ± 6.8 3 y 131-item food frequency questionnaire filled out by subject with assistance from parents (repeated annually) Change in self-reported BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice. Analyzed separately by sex Age, Tanner stage, baseline BMI z score, height change, physical activity, and total energy Yes 
Libuda, 200835  51% boys, 49% girls, Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed Study, Dortmund, Germany 235 11.9 ± 1.6 18.3 ± 2.5  6.3 ± 7.5 5 y 3-d weighed diet records by children and parents Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily MJ (240 kcal, or 17 oz) of fruit juice. Analyzed separately by sex Age, birth weight, years of adolescence, maternal BMI, and total energy Yes 
Newby, 200424  50% boys, 50% girls, North Dakota Women, Infants, and Children program data, United States 1345 2.9 ± 0.7 16.6 ± 1.3  10.7 ± 8.9  8 mo Parental 84-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline and 6–12 mo later Change in directly measured BMI per daily ounce of 100% fruit juice consumed Age, sex, ethnicity, residency, poverty level, maternal education, birth weight, and total energy Yes 
Shefferly, 20151,37  51% boys, 49% girls, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, United States 8950 16.7 ± 2.4  Not reported 3 y Parental food frequency questionnaire by structured interview at age 2, 4, and 5 y Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving (8 oz) of 100% fruit juice Sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, baseline BMI z score, maternal BMI. Separate analyses by age 2–4 and 4–5 y No 
Sonneville, 201512  50% boys, 50% girls, Project Viva, United States 1163 1  17.1 ± 3.0 8.0 ± 9.6  2 y Maternal food frequency questionnaire at baseline, then repeated structured interviews with mothers and children (at mean ages 3.1 and 7.7 y) Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily servings (8–15 oz) of 100% fruit juice Age, sex, weight- for-length z score, race/ethnicity, maternal age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, household income, and total energy Yes 
Striegel-Moore, 200638,39  100% girls, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, United States 2379 9.5 18.6 ± 3.8  3.9 ± 0.2  10 y 3-d diet records by dietician interview (repeated 8× every 1–2 y) Change in directly measured BMI over 1 y per 100 g/day (3.5 oz) of 100% fruit juice consumed Age, race, milk, diet soda, sugar-sweetened beverages, coffee/tea, total energy Yes 
SourceStudy Population and LocationSample SizeMean (± SD) Baseline Age, yMean (± SD) Baseline BMI, kg/m2Mean (± SD) Baseline Daily 100% Fruit Juice Intake, ozMean Follow-up LengthDietary AssessmentOutcome AssessmentCovariatesEnergy adjustment
Dong, 201534  46% boys, 54% girls, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, United Kingdom 4646 7.5 ± 0.3 16.2 ± 2.0 4.4 6 y 3-d food diary filled out by subject and parent (repeated 3 y apart) Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice Physical activity, pubertal stage, maternal education, consumption of 26 food groups. Sensitivity analyses by age and sex No 
Faith, 200620  53% boys, 47% girls, New York Women, Infants, and Children program data, United States 825 2.5 ± 0.8 16.7 18.0 ± 7.2 2 y Parental food frequency questionnaire Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice Age, baseline weight-for-height z score, food and beverage intake, parental feeding styles, parental feeding attitudes No 
Field, 200336  55% boys, 45% girls, Growing Up Today Study, United States 14 918 11.9 ± 1.6 19.1 ± 3.3  6.8 ± 6.8 3 y 131-item food frequency questionnaire filled out by subject with assistance from parents (repeated annually) Change in self-reported BMI z score per daily serving of 100% fruit juice. Analyzed separately by sex Age, Tanner stage, baseline BMI z score, height change, physical activity, and total energy Yes 
Libuda, 200835  51% boys, 49% girls, Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed Study, Dortmund, Germany 235 11.9 ± 1.6 18.3 ± 2.5  6.3 ± 7.5 5 y 3-d weighed diet records by children and parents Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily MJ (240 kcal, or 17 oz) of fruit juice. Analyzed separately by sex Age, birth weight, years of adolescence, maternal BMI, and total energy Yes 
Newby, 200424  50% boys, 50% girls, North Dakota Women, Infants, and Children program data, United States 1345 2.9 ± 0.7 16.6 ± 1.3  10.7 ± 8.9  8 mo Parental 84-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline and 6–12 mo later Change in directly measured BMI per daily ounce of 100% fruit juice consumed Age, sex, ethnicity, residency, poverty level, maternal education, birth weight, and total energy Yes 
Shefferly, 20151,37  51% boys, 49% girls, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, United States 8950 16.7 ± 2.4  Not reported 3 y Parental food frequency questionnaire by structured interview at age 2, 4, and 5 y Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily serving (8 oz) of 100% fruit juice Sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, baseline BMI z score, maternal BMI. Separate analyses by age 2–4 and 4–5 y No 
Sonneville, 201512  50% boys, 50% girls, Project Viva, United States 1163 1  17.1 ± 3.0 8.0 ± 9.6  2 y Maternal food frequency questionnaire at baseline, then repeated structured interviews with mothers and children (at mean ages 3.1 and 7.7 y) Change in directly measured BMI z score per daily servings (8–15 oz) of 100% fruit juice Age, sex, weight- for-length z score, race/ethnicity, maternal age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, household income, and total energy Yes 
Striegel-Moore, 200638,39  100% girls, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, United States 2379 9.5 18.6 ± 3.8  3.9 ± 0.2  10 y 3-d diet records by dietician interview (repeated 8× every 1–2 y) Change in directly measured BMI over 1 y per 100 g/day (3.5 oz) of 100% fruit juice consumed Age, race, milk, diet soda, sugar-sweetened beverages, coffee/tea, total energy Yes 
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