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TABLE 1

Distribution of Predictors of Maltreatment at Birth Among Children Born in 2010 in New Zealand

Predictor Variables (Dummies)aProportion of All Children who Are in the Top 10% Group (%)Top 10% Childrenb, No. (%)All Children, No. (%)
Preterm birth (before 37 wk gestation) 17.5 780 (12.6) 4455 (7.2) 
Female infant 9.8 2946 (47.7) 29 952 (48.5) 
Maternal age <18, y 63.2 666 (10.8) 1053 (1.7) 
Maternal age 18–19  35.9 981 (15.9) 2733 (4.4) 
Maternal age 20–24  18.5 2037 (33.0) 11 022 (17.9) 
Maternal age >35  3.6 495 (8.0) 13 617 (22.1) 
Single mother 38.3 5451 (88.2) 14 229 (23.0) 
Maternal history of welfare (≥3 of last 5 y) 54.7 4710 (76.3) 8604 (13.9) 
Maternal history of a mental health or substance abuse (last 5 y) 42.9 2259 (36.6) 5262 (8.5) 
Maternal history of childhood allegations to CPS 53.3 3321 (53.8) 6234 (10.1) 
Maternal criminal justice sentence (last 5 y) 67.7 1584 (25.6) 2340 (3.8) 
High parenting demandc 46.8 1899 (30.7) 4059 (6.6) 
Siblings referred to CPS (last y) 96.5 1242 (20.1) 1287 (2.1) 
Siblings referred to CPS (last 5 y) 81.7 3900 (63.1) 4773 (7.7) 
Total No. children 10 6177 61 746 
Predictor Variables (Dummies)aProportion of All Children who Are in the Top 10% Group (%)Top 10% Childrenb, No. (%)All Children, No. (%)
Preterm birth (before 37 wk gestation) 17.5 780 (12.6) 4455 (7.2) 
Female infant 9.8 2946 (47.7) 29 952 (48.5) 
Maternal age <18, y 63.2 666 (10.8) 1053 (1.7) 
Maternal age 18–19  35.9 981 (15.9) 2733 (4.4) 
Maternal age 20–24  18.5 2037 (33.0) 11 022 (17.9) 
Maternal age >35  3.6 495 (8.0) 13 617 (22.1) 
Single mother 38.3 5451 (88.2) 14 229 (23.0) 
Maternal history of welfare (≥3 of last 5 y) 54.7 4710 (76.3) 8604 (13.9) 
Maternal history of a mental health or substance abuse (last 5 y) 42.9 2259 (36.6) 5262 (8.5) 
Maternal history of childhood allegations to CPS 53.3 3321 (53.8) 6234 (10.1) 
Maternal criminal justice sentence (last 5 y) 67.7 1584 (25.6) 2340 (3.8) 
High parenting demandc 46.8 1899 (30.7) 4059 (6.6) 
Siblings referred to CPS (last y) 96.5 1242 (20.1) 1287 (2.1) 
Siblings referred to CPS (last 5 y) 81.7 3900 (63.1) 4773 (7.7) 
Total No. children 10 6177 61 746 

We applied Statistics New Zealand confidentiality rules to counts, which included the random rounding of all counts to base 3. Data come from the Integrated Child Dataset, a one-off integrated record of all live births between mid-2004 and the end of 2011 in New Zealand, with health, welfare benefits, child protection system, and justice registers. The data set was put together by the MSD.

a

All variables were measured at the time of birth unless otherwise stated.

b

Children receiving the top 10% of scores generated by the PRM of maltreatment by age 2.

c

More than 3 children in the family (or multiple birth children, or multiple children aged <2).

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