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TABLE 1

Characteristics of Matched Case Patients and Controls for Infant Hospitalizations and Mortality in the First 6 Months of Life in the VSD, 2004–2014

Hospitalization Case Patients (n = 25 222)Matched Controls (n = 25 222)PaDeath Case Patients (n = 157)Matched Controls (n = 157)P
Mean age at event in d (range) 36 (1–183) — — 61 (1–180) — — 
Mean gestational age at delivery in wk (range) 39 (34–43) 39 (34–43) <.0001 39 (34–41) 39 (34–41) .88 
Mean maternal age in y (range) 31 (13–54) 31 (13–55) .0005 30 (15–41) 30 (16–41) .23 
Mean length of delivery hospitalization in d (range) 2.2 (0–103) 2.2 (0–110) <.0001 3.5 (0–41) 2.2 (0–18) .43 
Smoking during pregnancy, % 8.9 9.2 .39 15 10 .35 
Pregnancy complications, %b 31.0 28.7 <.0001 34 27 .14 
Cesarean delivery, % 23.6 27.9 <.0001 36 31 .52 
Adequate prenatal care by Kotelchuck index, %31  94.2 93.9 .30 92 92 .92 
African American non-Hispanic or American Indian race, % 5.9 7.2 <.0001 10 .14 
Hospitalization Case Patients (n = 25 222)Matched Controls (n = 25 222)PaDeath Case Patients (n = 157)Matched Controls (n = 157)P
Mean age at event in d (range) 36 (1–183) — — 61 (1–180) — — 
Mean gestational age at delivery in wk (range) 39 (34–43) 39 (34–43) <.0001 39 (34–41) 39 (34–41) .88 
Mean maternal age in y (range) 31 (13–54) 31 (13–55) .0005 30 (15–41) 30 (16–41) .23 
Mean length of delivery hospitalization in d (range) 2.2 (0–103) 2.2 (0–110) <.0001 3.5 (0–41) 2.2 (0–18) .43 
Smoking during pregnancy, % 8.9 9.2 .39 15 10 .35 
Pregnancy complications, %b 31.0 28.7 <.0001 34 27 .14 
Cesarean delivery, % 23.6 27.9 <.0001 36 31 .52 
Adequate prenatal care by Kotelchuck index, %31  94.2 93.9 .30 92 92 .92 
African American non-Hispanic or American Indian race, % 5.9 7.2 <.0001 10 .14 

—, not applicable.

a

P values calculated by χ2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon median 2-sample tests for continuous variables.

b

Pregnancy complications include hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, renal disease, diabetes, thyroid disease, cardiovascular disease, and epilepsy.

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