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TABLE 1

Demographics of Sample (N = 7028): Distribution of Demographic Characteristics and Bivariate Associations With Weight Status in Children Aged 2 to 5 Years, NHANES 1999–2014

Meana (SE)NW (<85th Percentile), n = 5291 (76.5%)OW (85th Percentile–94.9th Percentile), n = 918 (13.0%)Obesity (≥95th Percentile–1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 662 (8.4%)SO (≥1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 157 (2.1%)
Mean (SE)Coefficientb (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)
Age 
 Child (mo) 47.7 (0.2) 47.3 (0.2)c Ref 47.5 (0.6) 0.16 (−1.0 to 1.3) 49.6 (0.7) 2.2* (0.7 to 3.8) 56.5 (1.3) 9.2* (6.6 to 11) 
 Mother (y) 27.5 (0.1) 27.6 (0.1) Ref 27.3 (0.3) −0.3 (−0.9 to 0.2) 27.0 (0.3) −0.6* (−1.3 to 0.0) 26.6 (0.6) −1.0 (−2.6 to 0.3) 
 n (%)a n (%) OR (95% CI)c n (%) OR (95% CI) n (%) OR (95% CI) n (%) OR (95% CI) 
Sex (child) 
 Female 3456 (49.6) 2637 (50.2) Ref 426 (46.8) Ref 327 (47.8) Ref 66 (48.1) Ref 
 Male 3572 (50.4) 2654 (49.8) Ref 492 (53.2) 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) 335 (52.2) 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 91 (51.9) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) 
Race and/or ethnicity (child) 
 Non-Hispanic white 2045 (54.6) 1604 (56.3) Ref 264 (54.2) Ref 146 (43.6) Ref 31 (42.3) Ref 
 Hispanic 2522 (23.0) 1782 (21.0) Ref 361 (25.8) 1.3* (1.0 to 1.6) 304 (33.1) 2.0* (1.6 to 2.6) 75 (36.1) 2.3* (1.4 to 3.7) 
 Non-Hispanic African American 1843 (14.4) 1401 (14.2) Ref 224 (13.4) 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 174 (16.4) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.9) 44 (18.5) 1.7* (1.0 to 3.0) 
 Other or mixed 618 (8.0) 504 (8.5) Ref 69 (6.6) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2) 38 (6.9) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.7) 7 (3.1) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.2) 
Household income, % FPL 
 ≥300 1360 (31.8) 1109 (33.6) Ref 145 (27.3) Ref 90 (24.9) Ref 16 (20.0) Ref 
 200–299 819 (14.8) 623 (14.8) Ref 104 (15.0) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.7) 76 (14.6) 1.3* (1.2 to 2.2) 16 (14.6) 1.7 (0.6 to 4.1) 
 100–199 1810 (25.6) 1330 (24.6) Ref 252 (28.6) 1.4* (1.1 to 1.9) 181 (28.3) 1.5* (1.0 to 2.2) 47 (31.8) 2.2* (1.0 to 4.4) 
 <100 2521 (27.8) 1850 (27.0) Ref 340 (29.1) 1.3* (1.0 to 1.7) 267 (32.2) 1.6* (1.2 to 2.2) 64 (33.6) 2.1* (1.1 to 4.0) 
Education (respondent) 
 Any college 3014 (54.9) 2383 (57.5) Ref 349 (48.1) Ref 239 (47.0) Ref 43 (35.8) Ref 
 Less than HS or GED 3778 (45.1) 2735 (42.5) Ref 544 (51.9) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.8) 392 (53.0) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.9) 107 (64.2) 2.4* (1.5 to 3.9) 
Marital status (respondent) 
 Married 4633 (78.8) 3533 (79.7) Ref 594 (77.8) Ref 421 (75.0) Ref 85 (66.4) Ref 
 Single 1932 (21.2) 1401 (20.3) Ref 269 (22.3) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.4) 202 (25.0) 1.4* (1.1 to 1.7) 60 (33.7) 2.0* (1.3 to 3.0) 
Meana (SE)NW (<85th Percentile), n = 5291 (76.5%)OW (85th Percentile–94.9th Percentile), n = 918 (13.0%)Obesity (≥95th Percentile–1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 662 (8.4%)SO (≥1.2 × 95th Percentile), n = 157 (2.1%)
Mean (SE)Coefficientb (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)Mean (SE)Coefficient (95% CI)
Age 
 Child (mo) 47.7 (0.2) 47.3 (0.2)c Ref 47.5 (0.6) 0.16 (−1.0 to 1.3) 49.6 (0.7) 2.2* (0.7 to 3.8) 56.5 (1.3) 9.2* (6.6 to 11) 
 Mother (y) 27.5 (0.1) 27.6 (0.1) Ref 27.3 (0.3) −0.3 (−0.9 to 0.2) 27.0 (0.3) −0.6* (−1.3 to 0.0) 26.6 (0.6) −1.0 (−2.6 to 0.3) 
 n (%)a n (%) OR (95% CI)c n (%) OR (95% CI) n (%) OR (95% CI) n (%) OR (95% CI) 
Sex (child) 
 Female 3456 (49.6) 2637 (50.2) Ref 426 (46.8) Ref 327 (47.8) Ref 66 (48.1) Ref 
 Male 3572 (50.4) 2654 (49.8) Ref 492 (53.2) 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) 335 (52.2) 1.1 (0.9 to 1.3) 91 (51.9) 1.1 (0.7 to 1.6) 
Race and/or ethnicity (child) 
 Non-Hispanic white 2045 (54.6) 1604 (56.3) Ref 264 (54.2) Ref 146 (43.6) Ref 31 (42.3) Ref 
 Hispanic 2522 (23.0) 1782 (21.0) Ref 361 (25.8) 1.3* (1.0 to 1.6) 304 (33.1) 2.0* (1.6 to 2.6) 75 (36.1) 2.3* (1.4 to 3.7) 
 Non-Hispanic African American 1843 (14.4) 1401 (14.2) Ref 224 (13.4) 1.0 (0.8 to 1.2) 174 (16.4) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.9) 44 (18.5) 1.7* (1.0 to 3.0) 
 Other or mixed 618 (8.0) 504 (8.5) Ref 69 (6.6) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2) 38 (6.9) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.7) 7 (3.1) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.2) 
Household income, % FPL 
 ≥300 1360 (31.8) 1109 (33.6) Ref 145 (27.3) Ref 90 (24.9) Ref 16 (20.0) Ref 
 200–299 819 (14.8) 623 (14.8) Ref 104 (15.0) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.7) 76 (14.6) 1.3* (1.2 to 2.2) 16 (14.6) 1.7 (0.6 to 4.1) 
 100–199 1810 (25.6) 1330 (24.6) Ref 252 (28.6) 1.4* (1.1 to 1.9) 181 (28.3) 1.5* (1.0 to 2.2) 47 (31.8) 2.2* (1.0 to 4.4) 
 <100 2521 (27.8) 1850 (27.0) Ref 340 (29.1) 1.3* (1.0 to 1.7) 267 (32.2) 1.6* (1.2 to 2.2) 64 (33.6) 2.1* (1.1 to 4.0) 
Education (respondent) 
 Any college 3014 (54.9) 2383 (57.5) Ref 349 (48.1) Ref 239 (47.0) Ref 43 (35.8) Ref 
 Less than HS or GED 3778 (45.1) 2735 (42.5) Ref 544 (51.9) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.8) 392 (53.0) 1.5* (1.2 to 1.9) 107 (64.2) 2.4* (1.5 to 3.9) 
Marital status (respondent) 
 Married 4633 (78.8) 3533 (79.7) Ref 594 (77.8) Ref 421 (75.0) Ref 85 (66.4) Ref 
 Single 1932 (21.2) 1401 (20.3) Ref 269 (22.3) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.4) 202 (25.0) 1.4* (1.1 to 1.7) 60 (33.7) 2.0* (1.3 to 3.0) 

GED, general education diploma; HS, high school; Ref, reference.

a

All N’s and n’s listed are unweighted (raw), all means and proportions are survey-weighted.

b

Coefficients from unadjusted linear regression.

c

ORs from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression.

*

P < .05.

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