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TABLE 3

Training Principles to Enhance Athletic Performance

1. Understand that strength increases actually occur during the recovery periods after working out. Adequate recovery may require up to 48–72 h after a hard workout. 
 a. Inadequate recovery will impede optimal performance gains. 
 b. Low-intensity or cross-training sessions may enhance recovery in between higher-intensity workouts. 
2. Training should vary in intensity, duration, and mode to enhance performance adaptations and minimize injury risk. 
3. Resistance training can be an effective way to improve strength and power. 
 a. The AAP policy statement on strength training in children and adolescents provides a comprehensive overview regarding safety and basic resistance training principles in the pediatric population.44  
  i. Emphasis on appropriate supervision, technique, and equipment selection reviewed. 
 b. Policy statement by the National Strength and Conditioning Association outlines more specific information on training for specific performance goals.43  
  i. Training for strength: choose a weight that will allow completion of the following with good form and technique: 
   1. Novice (<2–3 mo’ experience): 10–15 repetitions for 1 set 
   2. Intermediate (3–12 mo’ experience): 8–12 repetitions for 1–2 sets 
   3. Advanced (>12 mo’ experience): 6–10 repetitions for 2–3 sets 
 c. Greatest gains from a resistance training program will likely be noted after onset of peak height velocity 
4. Nutrition. 
 a. Adequate carbohydrates 
  i. Before exercise to fuel workout and to avoid breakdown of muscle tissue 
  ii. Strong evidence that carbohydrate ingestion during exercise sessions lasting longer than 1 h help athletes maintain intensity of effort; however, there is emerging evidence that small amounts of carbohydrates may be beneficial during shorter sessions as well.45  
  iii. After exercise to build up intramuscular fuel for the next days’ workouts 
 b. Adequate hydration to maintain performance level throughout the workout 
  i. Ensure adequate hydration before training sessions 
  ii. Replenish fluid throughout period of exercise 
   1. Unrestricted access to fluid during physical exertion 
   2. Young athletes should be encouraged to drink to thirst 
   3. Low-carbohydrate solutions (6%–8% carbohydrate) may be beneficial for training sessions longer than 30 min 
    a. Sports drinks or nonacidic fruit juice diluted 1:1 
   4. Assess fluid losses during exercise with pre- and postworkout weights 
    a. Replenish 16–20 oz of fluid for every pound of weight lost 
    b. Alter fluid replacement strategy to minimize losses in future workouts 
    c. Protein after exercise and interspersed throughout the day to provide a ready pool of amino acids for muscle building throughout the recovery period 
  i. Athletes consuming a balanced omnivorous diet usually with adequate protein intake 
   1. Vegetarian and vegan diets often require additional planning 
  ii. Protein requirements of adolescent athletes often range from 1.0 to 1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day 
  iii. General rules of thumb for food protein content 
   1. 8 g of protein contained in: 
    a. 1 oz meat/poultry or 1/2 cup legumes or 1 cup milk/yogurt or 1 cup cooked pasta or 2 tablespoons of almond or peanut butter 
    b. Examples of portion sizes: 
     i. Cooked meat or poultry: 3 oz is size of computer mouse: ∼25 g protein 
     ii. 1 cup milk is about the size of a baseball: ∼8 g protein 
   2. Examples of food-based ways to add protein to diet: 
    a. Nonfat dry milk contains 12 g protein per 1/2 cup and can be used to enrich soups/sauces/beverages 
    b. Switch from traditional yogurt (7 g protein/6-oz serving) to Greek yogurt (17 g protein/6-oz serving) or cottage cheese (21 g protein/6-oz serving) 
    c. Peanuts contain more protein than tree nuts with 26 g protein/100-g serving 
     i. Almonds and pistachios with 21 g protein/100-g serving 
     ii. Cashews with 18 g protein/100-g serving 
     iii. Macadamias with 8 g protein/100-g serving 
1. Understand that strength increases actually occur during the recovery periods after working out. Adequate recovery may require up to 48–72 h after a hard workout. 
 a. Inadequate recovery will impede optimal performance gains. 
 b. Low-intensity or cross-training sessions may enhance recovery in between higher-intensity workouts. 
2. Training should vary in intensity, duration, and mode to enhance performance adaptations and minimize injury risk. 
3. Resistance training can be an effective way to improve strength and power. 
 a. The AAP policy statement on strength training in children and adolescents provides a comprehensive overview regarding safety and basic resistance training principles in the pediatric population.44  
  i. Emphasis on appropriate supervision, technique, and equipment selection reviewed. 
 b. Policy statement by the National Strength and Conditioning Association outlines more specific information on training for specific performance goals.43  
  i. Training for strength: choose a weight that will allow completion of the following with good form and technique: 
   1. Novice (<2–3 mo’ experience): 10–15 repetitions for 1 set 
   2. Intermediate (3–12 mo’ experience): 8–12 repetitions for 1–2 sets 
   3. Advanced (>12 mo’ experience): 6–10 repetitions for 2–3 sets 
 c. Greatest gains from a resistance training program will likely be noted after onset of peak height velocity 
4. Nutrition. 
 a. Adequate carbohydrates 
  i. Before exercise to fuel workout and to avoid breakdown of muscle tissue 
  ii. Strong evidence that carbohydrate ingestion during exercise sessions lasting longer than 1 h help athletes maintain intensity of effort; however, there is emerging evidence that small amounts of carbohydrates may be beneficial during shorter sessions as well.45  
  iii. After exercise to build up intramuscular fuel for the next days’ workouts 
 b. Adequate hydration to maintain performance level throughout the workout 
  i. Ensure adequate hydration before training sessions 
  ii. Replenish fluid throughout period of exercise 
   1. Unrestricted access to fluid during physical exertion 
   2. Young athletes should be encouraged to drink to thirst 
   3. Low-carbohydrate solutions (6%–8% carbohydrate) may be beneficial for training sessions longer than 30 min 
    a. Sports drinks or nonacidic fruit juice diluted 1:1 
   4. Assess fluid losses during exercise with pre- and postworkout weights 
    a. Replenish 16–20 oz of fluid for every pound of weight lost 
    b. Alter fluid replacement strategy to minimize losses in future workouts 
    c. Protein after exercise and interspersed throughout the day to provide a ready pool of amino acids for muscle building throughout the recovery period 
  i. Athletes consuming a balanced omnivorous diet usually with adequate protein intake 
   1. Vegetarian and vegan diets often require additional planning 
  ii. Protein requirements of adolescent athletes often range from 1.0 to 1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day 
  iii. General rules of thumb for food protein content 
   1. 8 g of protein contained in: 
    a. 1 oz meat/poultry or 1/2 cup legumes or 1 cup milk/yogurt or 1 cup cooked pasta or 2 tablespoons of almond or peanut butter 
    b. Examples of portion sizes: 
     i. Cooked meat or poultry: 3 oz is size of computer mouse: ∼25 g protein 
     ii. 1 cup milk is about the size of a baseball: ∼8 g protein 
   2. Examples of food-based ways to add protein to diet: 
    a. Nonfat dry milk contains 12 g protein per 1/2 cup and can be used to enrich soups/sauces/beverages 
    b. Switch from traditional yogurt (7 g protein/6-oz serving) to Greek yogurt (17 g protein/6-oz serving) or cottage cheese (21 g protein/6-oz serving) 
    c. Peanuts contain more protein than tree nuts with 26 g protein/100-g serving 
     i. Almonds and pistachios with 21 g protein/100-g serving 
     ii. Cashews with 18 g protein/100-g serving 
     iii. Macadamias with 8 g protein/100-g serving 
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