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TABLE 2

Characteristics and Outcomes of the Newborns and Their Mothers

Characteristics of the NewbornsBaseline (N = 55)Postimplementation (N = 44)P
 Girl, no. (%) 31 (56) 25 (56) .96 
 Race, no. (%)   .19 
  White 45 (85) 42 (95)  
  African American 2 (4) 0 (0)  
  Hispanic 6 (11) 2 (5)  
 Birth weight, kga 3.1 ± 0.6 3.1 ± 0.6 .72 
 Apgar score at 5 mina 8.7 ± 0.8 8.8 ± 0.8 .92 
 Head circumference, cma 33.1 ± 1.8 32.8 ± 1.4 .44 
Characteristics of the mothers    
 Polypharmacy, no. (%)b 18 (33) 16 (36) .70 
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%) 24 (44) 13 (30) .15 
 Cigarette smoking, no. (%) 30 (58) 26 (59) .53 
 Alcohol, no. (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) .36 
 Public insurance, no. (%) 48 (96) 42 (95) .90 
 Mother’s age, ya 27.5 ± 5.8 29.1 ± 5.1 .16 
 Gestational age, wka 38.9 ± 1.6 38.4 ± 1.4 .09 
 Methadone dose, mg/da 85.6 ± 34.3 94.5 ± 37.8 .23 
 Gravidaa 3.2 ± 1.8 3.2 ± 1.9 .94 
Outcomes    
 Hospital length of stay, da 22.4 ± 10.8 5.9 ± 1.9 <.001 
 Treated with morphine, no. (%) 54 (98) 6 (14) <.001 
 Cost, US dollarsa,c 44 824 ± 23 726 10 289 ± 5068 <.001 
 Breast-milk fed at discharge, no. (%) 11 (20) 20 (45) .01 
 NICU stay, no. (%)d 55 (100) 9 (20) <.001 
Characteristics of the NewbornsBaseline (N = 55)Postimplementation (N = 44)P
 Girl, no. (%) 31 (56) 25 (56) .96 
 Race, no. (%)   .19 
  White 45 (85) 42 (95)  
  African American 2 (4) 0 (0)  
  Hispanic 6 (11) 2 (5)  
 Birth weight, kga 3.1 ± 0.6 3.1 ± 0.6 .72 
 Apgar score at 5 mina 8.7 ± 0.8 8.8 ± 0.8 .92 
 Head circumference, cma 33.1 ± 1.8 32.8 ± 1.4 .44 
Characteristics of the mothers    
 Polypharmacy, no. (%)b 18 (33) 16 (36) .70 
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%) 24 (44) 13 (30) .15 
 Cigarette smoking, no. (%) 30 (58) 26 (59) .53 
 Alcohol, no. (%) 1 (2) 0 (0) .36 
 Public insurance, no. (%) 48 (96) 42 (95) .90 
 Mother’s age, ya 27.5 ± 5.8 29.1 ± 5.1 .16 
 Gestational age, wka 38.9 ± 1.6 38.4 ± 1.4 .09 
 Methadone dose, mg/da 85.6 ± 34.3 94.5 ± 37.8 .23 
 Gravidaa 3.2 ± 1.8 3.2 ± 1.9 .94 
Outcomes    
 Hospital length of stay, da 22.4 ± 10.8 5.9 ± 1.9 <.001 
 Treated with morphine, no. (%) 54 (98) 6 (14) <.001 
 Cost, US dollarsa,c 44 824 ± 23 726 10 289 ± 5068 <.001 
 Breast-milk fed at discharge, no. (%) 11 (20) 20 (45) .01 
 NICU stay, no. (%)d 55 (100) 9 (20) <.001 

In the baseline period, data were unavailable for 5 patients for insurance, 3 patients for cigarette smoking, and 2 patients for ethnicity.

a

Mean ± SD.

b

Methadone use in addition to mother’s use of cocaine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, or opioids other than methadone (determined either via history and/or urine testing of mother).

c

Adjusted for inflation.

d

Patients with any time spent in the NICU.

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