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TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children at the Time of Filling of Study Opioid Prescriptions

Age, yAll
2–56–1112–17
Prescriptions, n 269 602 377 823 715 078 1 362 503 
Female patient 45.4% 48.5% 56.4% 52.0% 
Disability enrollment 3.5% 6.1% 7.8% 6.5% 
Medical care     
 Hospitalized in past y 9.9% 7.8% 14.1% 11.5% 
 Hospitalized in past 30 d 4.4% 4.1% 6.6% 5.4% 
Opioid indication     
 Indication found 84.9% 84.7% 85.4% 85.1% 
  Dental 24.7% 32.7% 32.6% 31.1% 
  Outpatient procedure and/or surgery 41.0% 26.4% 18.4% 25.1% 
  Trauma 9.2% 17.1% 21.9% 18.1% 
  Infection 23.7% 19.2% 12.3% 16.5% 
   Ear, nose, throat, and/or upper respiratory infection 12.8% 11.4% 6.4% 9.0% 
   Bronchitis 8.3% 5.6% 2.7% 4.6% 
   Other infection 2.7% 2.3% 3.2% 2.9% 
   Other paina 1.3% 4.6% 14.8% 9.3% 
 Indication not found 15.2% 15.3% 14.6% 14.9% 
Opioid exposure duration and dose; median (IQR)     
 Current use (d) 4 (2–6) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 
 Prescription exposure period (d) 18 (15–20) 17 (16–19) 17 (16–19) 17 (16–19) 
 Dose (morphine equivalents) mg/kg per d 0.62 (0.41–0.90) 0.52 (0.33–0.82) 0.55 (0.37–0.82) 0.55 (0.38–0.84) 
Specific opioid     
 Hydrocodone 26.1% 31.5% 53.7% 42.1% 
 Codeine 61.9% 56.9% 23.3% 40.2% 
 Meperidine 10.8% 8.7% 1.3% 5.2% 
 Oxycodone 0.4% 0.7% 8.2% 4.6% 
 Tramadol 0.1% 0.4% 5.3% 2.9% 
 Other opioid and/or multiple opioidsb 0.9% 1.9% 8.4% 5.1% 
Age, yAll
2–56–1112–17
Prescriptions, n 269 602 377 823 715 078 1 362 503 
Female patient 45.4% 48.5% 56.4% 52.0% 
Disability enrollment 3.5% 6.1% 7.8% 6.5% 
Medical care     
 Hospitalized in past y 9.9% 7.8% 14.1% 11.5% 
 Hospitalized in past 30 d 4.4% 4.1% 6.6% 5.4% 
Opioid indication     
 Indication found 84.9% 84.7% 85.4% 85.1% 
  Dental 24.7% 32.7% 32.6% 31.1% 
  Outpatient procedure and/or surgery 41.0% 26.4% 18.4% 25.1% 
  Trauma 9.2% 17.1% 21.9% 18.1% 
  Infection 23.7% 19.2% 12.3% 16.5% 
   Ear, nose, throat, and/or upper respiratory infection 12.8% 11.4% 6.4% 9.0% 
   Bronchitis 8.3% 5.6% 2.7% 4.6% 
   Other infection 2.7% 2.3% 3.2% 2.9% 
   Other paina 1.3% 4.6% 14.8% 9.3% 
 Indication not found 15.2% 15.3% 14.6% 14.9% 
Opioid exposure duration and dose; median (IQR)     
 Current use (d) 4 (2–6) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 3 (2–5) 
 Prescription exposure period (d) 18 (15–20) 17 (16–19) 17 (16–19) 17 (16–19) 
 Dose (morphine equivalents) mg/kg per d 0.62 (0.41–0.90) 0.52 (0.33–0.82) 0.55 (0.37–0.82) 0.55 (0.38–0.84) 
Specific opioid     
 Hydrocodone 26.1% 31.5% 53.7% 42.1% 
 Codeine 61.9% 56.9% 23.3% 40.2% 
 Meperidine 10.8% 8.7% 1.3% 5.2% 
 Oxycodone 0.4% 0.7% 8.2% 4.6% 
 Tramadol 0.1% 0.4% 5.3% 2.9% 
 Other opioid and/or multiple opioidsb 0.9% 1.9% 8.4% 5.1% 

Includes prescriptions filled from 1999 to 2014. IQR, interquartile range.

a

Other pain includes headaches and other neurologic, back, musculoskeletal, or abdominal pain.

b

Includes propoxyphene (4.2% of all prescriptions) and other or multiple opioids prescribed on the same d (0.9% of all prescriptions).

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