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TABLE 1

Proportion of US Middle and High School Students Who Reported Ever and Current Use of Hookah as Well as the Proportion Who Overestimated Hookah Use Among Their Peers, NYTS 2016

NEver Use of Hookah,a % (95% CI)Current Use of Hookah,b % (95% CI)Overestimation of Peer Hookah Use,c % (95% CI)
Overall 20 675 10.5 (10.0–11.0) 3.6 (3.3–3.9) 59.3 (58.4–60.2) 
Sex     
 Male  10 438 10.1 (9.4–10.9) 3.5 (3.0–3.9) 51.5 (50.2–52.7) 
 Female 10 082 10.9 (10.1–11.7) 3.8 (3.3–4.2) 67.2 (65.9–68.4) 
Grade     
 Sixth  3235 2.6 (1.9–3.4) 1.2 (0.7–1.6) 32.0 (29.7–34.3) 
 Seventh 3249 4.7 (3.7–5.7) 2.5 (1.6–3.3) 42.3 (40.0–44.5) 
 Eighth 3174 6.5 (5.5–7.6) 2.4 (1.7–3.0) 53.2 (50.8–55.5) 
 Ninth 2741 8.0 (6.9–9.2) 3.0 (2.3–3.7) 75.5 (73.5–77.5) 
 10th 2809 13.4 (11.8–15.0) 4.5 (3.5–5.5) 81.5 (79.8–83.3) 
 11th 2674 17.6 (15.9–19.3) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 65.4 (63.2–67.6) 
 12th 2673 22.7 (20.7–24.7) 7.2 (5.9–8.4) 66.4 (64.1–68.7) 
School     
 Middle  9658 4.6 (4.1–5.2) 2.0 (1.6–2.4) 42.5 (41.2–43.8) 
 High  10 897 15.1 (14.3–15.9) 4.8 (4.3–5.3) 72.6 (71.5–73.6) 
Race and/or ethnicity     
 White, non-Hispanic  8141 9.3 (8.5–10.0) 2.9 (2.5–3.4) 55.5 (54.2–56.9) 
 African American, non-Hispanic 3050 9.6 (8.3–10.8) 3.5 (2.7–4.4) 63.5 (61.3–65.7) 
 Asian American, non-Hispanic 1036 4.5 (3.1–5.9) — 48.3 (44.5–52.2) 
 Hispanic 5793 14.4 (13.2–15.5) 5.3 (4.6–6.1) 67.5 (65.9–69.1) 
 Other, non-Hispanic 1654 12.8 (10.4–15.1) 4.8 (3.3–6.3) 62.4 (59.1–65.7) 
Hookah use statusd     
 Never  17 562 — — 56.2 (55.3–57.2) 
 Former 1395 — — 83.0 (80.4–85.6) 
 Occasional current 564 — — 90.0 (88.1–92.4) 
 Frequent current 199 — — 96.3 (93.9–98.7) 
Nonhookah tobacco product usee     
 Never  13 287 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 53.8 (52.7–54.8) 
 Former 3627 20.8 (19.1–22.5) 4.6 (3.7–5.5) 69.6 (67.6–71.6) 
 Current 2244 41.5 (38.9–44.0) 18.2 (16.2–20.1) 73.3 (70.9–75.7) 
Year(s) since first hookah usef     
 Never  17 846 — — 56.1 (55.2–57.1) 
 <1 403 — 39.6 (33.7–45.6) 91.4 (87.9–95.0) 
 1 695 — 31.6 (27.2–36.0) 88.7 (85.5–91.9) 
 2+ 853 — 28.1 (23.0–33.2) 83.7 (80.2–87.1) 
Tobacco use by household member     
 None  13 569 7.4 (6.8–7.9) 2.3 (2.0–2.6) 56.9 (55.9–58.0) 
 Hookah (alone or with other products) 440 52.2 (46.1–58.4) 35.7 (29.6–41.7) 86.4 (82.4–90.5) 
 Nonhookah onlyg 6666 14.2 (13.2–15.3) 4.4 (3.7–5.0) 62.1 (60.6–63.6) 
Do you speak a language other than English at home?     
 No  13 165 9.2 (8.6–9.8) 2.9 (2.5–3.3) 57.3 (56.2–58.4) 
 Yes 6516 13.2 (12.2–14.3) 5.0 (4.3–5.7) 64.6 (63.1–66.1) 
NEver Use of Hookah,a % (95% CI)Current Use of Hookah,b % (95% CI)Overestimation of Peer Hookah Use,c % (95% CI)
Overall 20 675 10.5 (10.0–11.0) 3.6 (3.3–3.9) 59.3 (58.4–60.2) 
Sex     
 Male  10 438 10.1 (9.4–10.9) 3.5 (3.0–3.9) 51.5 (50.2–52.7) 
 Female 10 082 10.9 (10.1–11.7) 3.8 (3.3–4.2) 67.2 (65.9–68.4) 
Grade     
 Sixth  3235 2.6 (1.9–3.4) 1.2 (0.7–1.6) 32.0 (29.7–34.3) 
 Seventh 3249 4.7 (3.7–5.7) 2.5 (1.6–3.3) 42.3 (40.0–44.5) 
 Eighth 3174 6.5 (5.5–7.6) 2.4 (1.7–3.0) 53.2 (50.8–55.5) 
 Ninth 2741 8.0 (6.9–9.2) 3.0 (2.3–3.7) 75.5 (73.5–77.5) 
 10th 2809 13.4 (11.8–15.0) 4.5 (3.5–5.5) 81.5 (79.8–83.3) 
 11th 2674 17.6 (15.9–19.3) 5.0 (4.0–6.0) 65.4 (63.2–67.6) 
 12th 2673 22.7 (20.7–24.7) 7.2 (5.9–8.4) 66.4 (64.1–68.7) 
School     
 Middle  9658 4.6 (4.1–5.2) 2.0 (1.6–2.4) 42.5 (41.2–43.8) 
 High  10 897 15.1 (14.3–15.9) 4.8 (4.3–5.3) 72.6 (71.5–73.6) 
Race and/or ethnicity     
 White, non-Hispanic  8141 9.3 (8.5–10.0) 2.9 (2.5–3.4) 55.5 (54.2–56.9) 
 African American, non-Hispanic 3050 9.6 (8.3–10.8) 3.5 (2.7–4.4) 63.5 (61.3–65.7) 
 Asian American, non-Hispanic 1036 4.5 (3.1–5.9) — 48.3 (44.5–52.2) 
 Hispanic 5793 14.4 (13.2–15.5) 5.3 (4.6–6.1) 67.5 (65.9–69.1) 
 Other, non-Hispanic 1654 12.8 (10.4–15.1) 4.8 (3.3–6.3) 62.4 (59.1–65.7) 
Hookah use statusd     
 Never  17 562 — — 56.2 (55.3–57.2) 
 Former 1395 — — 83.0 (80.4–85.6) 
 Occasional current 564 — — 90.0 (88.1–92.4) 
 Frequent current 199 — — 96.3 (93.9–98.7) 
Nonhookah tobacco product usee     
 Never  13 287 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 53.8 (52.7–54.8) 
 Former 3627 20.8 (19.1–22.5) 4.6 (3.7–5.5) 69.6 (67.6–71.6) 
 Current 2244 41.5 (38.9–44.0) 18.2 (16.2–20.1) 73.3 (70.9–75.7) 
Year(s) since first hookah usef     
 Never  17 846 — — 56.1 (55.2–57.1) 
 <1 403 — 39.6 (33.7–45.6) 91.4 (87.9–95.0) 
 1 695 — 31.6 (27.2–36.0) 88.7 (85.5–91.9) 
 2+ 853 — 28.1 (23.0–33.2) 83.7 (80.2–87.1) 
Tobacco use by household member     
 None  13 569 7.4 (6.8–7.9) 2.3 (2.0–2.6) 56.9 (55.9–58.0) 
 Hookah (alone or with other products) 440 52.2 (46.1–58.4) 35.7 (29.6–41.7) 86.4 (82.4–90.5) 
 Nonhookah onlyg 6666 14.2 (13.2–15.3) 4.4 (3.7–5.0) 62.1 (60.6–63.6) 
Do you speak a language other than English at home?     
 No  13 165 9.2 (8.6–9.8) 2.9 (2.5–3.3) 57.3 (56.2–58.4) 
 Yes 6516 13.2 (12.2–14.3) 5.0 (4.3–5.7) 64.6 (63.1–66.1) 

χ2 test results were significant in all subgroups for hookah ever use, current use, and overestimation. CI, confidence interval; —, <30 persons or relative SE ≥30%.

a

Defined as use of hookah on at least 1 d during lifetime.

b

Defined as use of hookah on at least 1 d in the past 30 d.

c

Respondents were asked how many students in their grade they thought used hookah out of 10 (perceived prevalence). A difference score (δ) was computed to measure the gap between perceived prevalence and grade-specific actual prevalence. Respondents were then dichotomized as either overestimating (δ >0) or not overestimating (δ ≤0) peer hookah use.

d

Never hookah users reported never smoking hookah in their lifetime, former users last smoked hookah >30 d ago, current occasional users smoked hookah on less than one-third of the past 30 d (1–9 d), and current frequent users smoked hookah on greater than or equal to one-third of the past 30 d (10–30 d).

e

Assessed nonhookah products included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Never users had used none of these tobacco products in their lifetime, former users last used 1 or more >30 d ago, and current users last used 1 or more ≤30 d ago.

f

Respondents were asked at what age they first used hookah as well as their current age. The only response option that was not a discrete number (“19 y or older”) was coded as “19” to allow for arithmetic computations. The number of y since first trying hookah was current age minus age at first trying hookah.

g

Assessed nonhookah product use by household members included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco.

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