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TABLE 3

Characteristics Associated With Hookah Smoking Within Different Social Settings Among Past 30-Days Hookah Smokers in Grades 6–12, NYTS 2016 (n = 1179)

CharacteristicsFriend’s House, aOR (95% CI)My House, aOR (95% CI)Other Family Member’s House, aOR (95% CI)Hookah Bar, Restaurant, Cafe, aOR (95% CI)Another Place Not Otherwise Specified, aOR (95% CI)
Overestimation of peer hookah usea      
 No  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Yes 2.72 (0.95–7.83) 1.93 (0.68–5.47) 2.69 (0.48–15.07) 0.94 (0.25–3.52) 0.40 (0.13–1.17) 
 Indeterminate 1.43 (0.29–7.08) 1.39 (0.31–6.30) 2.94 (0.30–28.87) — 2.90 (0.54–15.57) 
Tobacco use by household member      
 No tobacco product  Referent Referent Referent Referent  Referent 
 Hookah (alone or with other products) 1.05 (0.60–1.84) 3.40 (1.92–6.02)* 1.01 (0.53–1.93) 2.52 (1.30–4.89)* 0.46 (0.23–0.92)* 
 Nonhookah tobacco aloneb 0.97 (0.62–1.52) 1.76 (1.11–2.79)* 0.36 (0.20–0.63)* 0.99 (0.59–1.68) 0.56 (0.33–0.97)* 
 Indeterminate — — — — — 
Sex      
 Male  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Female 1.33 (0.90–1.97) 1.16 (0.77–1.75) 0.94 (0.57–1.54) 1.05 (0.64–1.72) 1.17 (0.74–1.85) 
 Indeterminate 5.84 (1.34–25.39)* 0.99 (0.06–17.14) 1.26 (0.08–18.99) 2.12 (0.39–11.68) 0.37 (0.03–3.98) 
School level      
 Middle  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 High 1.11 (0.68–1.79) 1.22 (0.77–1.94) 3.35 (1.69–6.66)* 0.91 (0.54–1.54) 0.34 (0.20–0.57)* 
 Indeterminate 2.95 (0.52–16.67) 3.11 (0.46–21.21) 1.92 (0.21–17.71) 3.15 (0.35–28.59) 0.09 (0.01–0.68)* 
Race and/or ethnicity      
 White, non-Hispanic  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 African American, non-Hispanic 0.44 (0.23–0.83)* 1.11 (0.59–2.09) 0.97 (0.45–2.09) 1.71 (0.83–3.52) 0.67 (0.30–1.53) 
 Asian American, non-Hispanic 0.39 (0.09–1.73) 0.60 (0.15–2.35) 2.42 (0.59–9.91) 0.58 (0.10–3.28) 1.14 (0.24–5.35) 
 Hispanic 0.64 (0.39–1.07) 0.75 (0.45–1.25) 0.69 (0.36–1.29) 1.37 (0.75–2.51) 0.78 (0.44–1.36) 
 Other, non-Hispanic 0.99 (0.46–2.09) 1.51 (0.74–3.08) 0.68 (0.27–1.72) 1.63 (0.69–3.85) 1.27 (0.54–2.99) 
 Indeterminate 0.67 (0.25–1.81) 1.32 (0.52–3.36) — 2.11 (0.72–6.19) 1.87 (0.63–5.51) 
Do you speak a language other than English at home?      
 No  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Yes 0.79 (0.51–1.23) 1.13 (0.73–1.76) 1.34 (0.76–2.38) 0.88 (0.54–1.44) 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 
 Indeterminate 2.34 (0.69–7.94) 2.67 (0.88–8.08) 0.76 (0.19–3.10) 4.00 (1.25–12.81)* 0.09 (0.02–0.38)* 
Years since first hookah usec      
 <1 Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 1 1.64 (0.92–2.92) 1.46 (0.76–2.78) 1.48 (0.75–2.92) 0.85 (0.37–1.97) 0.99 (0.51–1.92) 
 2+ 1.13 (0.66–1.92) 2.47 (1.30–4.70)* 0.86 (0.44–1.66) 1.47 (0.67–3.20) 0.80 (0.43–1.49) 
 Indeterminate 0.75 (0.32–1.75) 1.48 (0.54–4.02) 0.37 (0.11–1.24) 2.38 (0.87–6.48) 1.04 (0.39–2.73) 
Frequency of hookah use (past 30 d)      
 1–2 d  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 3–5 d 1.23 (0.73–2.08) 2.03 (1.22–3.38)* 0.81 (0.42–1.54) 0.84 (0.40–1.74) 0.94 (0.49–1.79) 
 6–29 d 1.02 (0.62–1.71) 1.87 (1.13–3.09)* 0.73 (0.40–1.33) 1.96 (1.12–3.42)* 0.97 (0.48–1.96) 
 30 d 0.64 (0.33–1.25) 1.37 (0.70–2.68) 1.37 (0.57–3.32) 3.05 (1.44–6.45)* 2.81 (1.40–5.63)* 
 Indeterminate 3.65 (0.49–27.23) 3.54 (0.54–23.10) 2.86 (0.21–39.54) — 0.06 (0.00–1.25) 
Hookah flavor preference (past 30 d)d      
 Nonflavored  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Flavored  1.54 (1.02–2.32)* 1.75 (1.15–2.65)* 1.32 (0.79–2.19) 1.88 (1.13–3.13)* 1.09 (0.68–1.74) 
 Indeterminate 0.57 (0.21–1.54) 2.38 (0.87–6.51) 3.22 (0.78–13.39) 0.76 (0.27–2.10) 1.30 (0.43–3.92) 
Cigarette smoking (past 30 d)e      
 No use at all  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Nonmenthol use 0.57 (0.31–1.04) 1.93 (1.09–3.40)* 1.76 (0.87–3.52) 1.33 (0.64–2.73) 0.73 (0.36–1.47) 
 Menthol product use 0.89 (0.52–1.53) 0.83 (0.49–1.40) 1.23 (0.60–2.52) 0.81 (0.41–1.59) 0.96 (0.52–1.77) 
 Indeterminate 0.39 (0.20–0.76)* 0.64 (0.32–1.29) 0.97 (0.41–2.30) 0.78 (0.37–1.65) 0.89 (0.39–2.02) 
Other tobacco product use (past 30 d)e      
 No use at all  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Nonflavored product use 1.72 (0.93–3.16) 1.69 (0.82–3.50) 0.70 (0.31–1.61) 0.39 (0.16–0.93) 0.68 (0.31–1.47) 
 Flavored product use 2.32 (1.31–4.11)* 1.85 (1.00–3.40) 1.26 (0.64–2.51) 0.66 (0.33–1.32) 0.82 (0.41–1.68) 
 Indeterminate 1.41 (0.64–3.09) 1.90 (0.83–4.32) 0.83 (0.31–2.17) 0.38 (0.15–0.98) 0.70 (0.20–2.39) 
Attempted tobacco purchase in past 30 df      
 No attempt  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 1+ attempt (regardless of success) 0.83 (0.52–1.33) 0.68 (0.44–1.06) 2.39 (1.36–4.20)* 1.62 (0.92–2.86) 1.58 (0.91–2.73) 
 Indeterminate 0.77 (0.27–2.23) 0.57 (0.18–1.80) 1.57 (0.46–5.37) 2.45 (0.66–9.18) 0.71 (0.20–2.49) 
CharacteristicsFriend’s House, aOR (95% CI)My House, aOR (95% CI)Other Family Member’s House, aOR (95% CI)Hookah Bar, Restaurant, Cafe, aOR (95% CI)Another Place Not Otherwise Specified, aOR (95% CI)
Overestimation of peer hookah usea      
 No  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Yes 2.72 (0.95–7.83) 1.93 (0.68–5.47) 2.69 (0.48–15.07) 0.94 (0.25–3.52) 0.40 (0.13–1.17) 
 Indeterminate 1.43 (0.29–7.08) 1.39 (0.31–6.30) 2.94 (0.30–28.87) — 2.90 (0.54–15.57) 
Tobacco use by household member      
 No tobacco product  Referent Referent Referent Referent  Referent 
 Hookah (alone or with other products) 1.05 (0.60–1.84) 3.40 (1.92–6.02)* 1.01 (0.53–1.93) 2.52 (1.30–4.89)* 0.46 (0.23–0.92)* 
 Nonhookah tobacco aloneb 0.97 (0.62–1.52) 1.76 (1.11–2.79)* 0.36 (0.20–0.63)* 0.99 (0.59–1.68) 0.56 (0.33–0.97)* 
 Indeterminate — — — — — 
Sex      
 Male  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Female 1.33 (0.90–1.97) 1.16 (0.77–1.75) 0.94 (0.57–1.54) 1.05 (0.64–1.72) 1.17 (0.74–1.85) 
 Indeterminate 5.84 (1.34–25.39)* 0.99 (0.06–17.14) 1.26 (0.08–18.99) 2.12 (0.39–11.68) 0.37 (0.03–3.98) 
School level      
 Middle  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 High 1.11 (0.68–1.79) 1.22 (0.77–1.94) 3.35 (1.69–6.66)* 0.91 (0.54–1.54) 0.34 (0.20–0.57)* 
 Indeterminate 2.95 (0.52–16.67) 3.11 (0.46–21.21) 1.92 (0.21–17.71) 3.15 (0.35–28.59) 0.09 (0.01–0.68)* 
Race and/or ethnicity      
 White, non-Hispanic  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 African American, non-Hispanic 0.44 (0.23–0.83)* 1.11 (0.59–2.09) 0.97 (0.45–2.09) 1.71 (0.83–3.52) 0.67 (0.30–1.53) 
 Asian American, non-Hispanic 0.39 (0.09–1.73) 0.60 (0.15–2.35) 2.42 (0.59–9.91) 0.58 (0.10–3.28) 1.14 (0.24–5.35) 
 Hispanic 0.64 (0.39–1.07) 0.75 (0.45–1.25) 0.69 (0.36–1.29) 1.37 (0.75–2.51) 0.78 (0.44–1.36) 
 Other, non-Hispanic 0.99 (0.46–2.09) 1.51 (0.74–3.08) 0.68 (0.27–1.72) 1.63 (0.69–3.85) 1.27 (0.54–2.99) 
 Indeterminate 0.67 (0.25–1.81) 1.32 (0.52–3.36) — 2.11 (0.72–6.19) 1.87 (0.63–5.51) 
Do you speak a language other than English at home?      
 No  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Yes 0.79 (0.51–1.23) 1.13 (0.73–1.76) 1.34 (0.76–2.38) 0.88 (0.54–1.44) 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 
 Indeterminate 2.34 (0.69–7.94) 2.67 (0.88–8.08) 0.76 (0.19–3.10) 4.00 (1.25–12.81)* 0.09 (0.02–0.38)* 
Years since first hookah usec      
 <1 Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 1 1.64 (0.92–2.92) 1.46 (0.76–2.78) 1.48 (0.75–2.92) 0.85 (0.37–1.97) 0.99 (0.51–1.92) 
 2+ 1.13 (0.66–1.92) 2.47 (1.30–4.70)* 0.86 (0.44–1.66) 1.47 (0.67–3.20) 0.80 (0.43–1.49) 
 Indeterminate 0.75 (0.32–1.75) 1.48 (0.54–4.02) 0.37 (0.11–1.24) 2.38 (0.87–6.48) 1.04 (0.39–2.73) 
Frequency of hookah use (past 30 d)      
 1–2 d  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 3–5 d 1.23 (0.73–2.08) 2.03 (1.22–3.38)* 0.81 (0.42–1.54) 0.84 (0.40–1.74) 0.94 (0.49–1.79) 
 6–29 d 1.02 (0.62–1.71) 1.87 (1.13–3.09)* 0.73 (0.40–1.33) 1.96 (1.12–3.42)* 0.97 (0.48–1.96) 
 30 d 0.64 (0.33–1.25) 1.37 (0.70–2.68) 1.37 (0.57–3.32) 3.05 (1.44–6.45)* 2.81 (1.40–5.63)* 
 Indeterminate 3.65 (0.49–27.23) 3.54 (0.54–23.10) 2.86 (0.21–39.54) — 0.06 (0.00–1.25) 
Hookah flavor preference (past 30 d)d      
 Nonflavored  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Flavored  1.54 (1.02–2.32)* 1.75 (1.15–2.65)* 1.32 (0.79–2.19) 1.88 (1.13–3.13)* 1.09 (0.68–1.74) 
 Indeterminate 0.57 (0.21–1.54) 2.38 (0.87–6.51) 3.22 (0.78–13.39) 0.76 (0.27–2.10) 1.30 (0.43–3.92) 
Cigarette smoking (past 30 d)e      
 No use at all  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Nonmenthol use 0.57 (0.31–1.04) 1.93 (1.09–3.40)* 1.76 (0.87–3.52) 1.33 (0.64–2.73) 0.73 (0.36–1.47) 
 Menthol product use 0.89 (0.52–1.53) 0.83 (0.49–1.40) 1.23 (0.60–2.52) 0.81 (0.41–1.59) 0.96 (0.52–1.77) 
 Indeterminate 0.39 (0.20–0.76)* 0.64 (0.32–1.29) 0.97 (0.41–2.30) 0.78 (0.37–1.65) 0.89 (0.39–2.02) 
Other tobacco product use (past 30 d)e      
 No use at all  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 Nonflavored product use 1.72 (0.93–3.16) 1.69 (0.82–3.50) 0.70 (0.31–1.61) 0.39 (0.16–0.93) 0.68 (0.31–1.47) 
 Flavored product use 2.32 (1.31–4.11)* 1.85 (1.00–3.40) 1.26 (0.64–2.51) 0.66 (0.33–1.32) 0.82 (0.41–1.68) 
 Indeterminate 1.41 (0.64–3.09) 1.90 (0.83–4.32) 0.83 (0.31–2.17) 0.38 (0.15–0.98) 0.70 (0.20–2.39) 
Attempted tobacco purchase in past 30 df      
 No attempt  Referent Referent Referent Referent Referent 
 1+ attempt (regardless of success) 0.83 (0.52–1.33) 0.68 (0.44–1.06) 2.39 (1.36–4.20)* 1.62 (0.92–2.86) 1.58 (0.91–2.73) 
 Indeterminate 0.77 (0.27–2.23) 0.57 (0.18–1.80) 1.57 (0.46–5.37) 2.45 (0.66–9.18) 0.71 (0.20–2.49) 

The study denominator (n = 1179) includes persons who indicated past 30-d hookah smoking on at least 1 of 3 questions assessing use of any hookah in the past 30 d, use of flavored hookah in the past 30 d, and place smoked hookah in the past 30 d. Binary logistic regression analyses were controlled for all factors listed. Indeterminate responses include missing or “not sure” responses. CI, confidence interval; —, <30 persons or relative SE ≥30%.

a

Respondents were asked how many students in their grade they thought smoked hookah out of 10 (perceived prevalence). A difference score (δ) was computed to measure the gap between perceived prevalence and grade-specific actual prevalence. Respondents were then dichotomized as either overestimating (δ >0) or not overestimating (δ ≤0) peer hookah use.

b

Assessed nonhookah product use by household members included e-cigarettes, cigarettes, bidis, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco.

c

Respondents were asked at what age they first used hookah as well as their current age. The only response option that was not a discrete number (“19 y or older”) was coded as “19” to allow for arithmetic computations. The number of y since first trying hookah was current age minus age at first trying hookah.

d

Flavored hookah preference was defined as past 30-d use of a variety of hookah that was “flavored to taste like menthol (mint), alcohol (wine, cognac), candy, fruit, chocolate, or other sweets.”

e

Assessed nonhookah, noncigarette tobacco products included e-cigarettes, bidis, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Never users had used none of these tobacco products in their lifetime, former users last used 1 or more >30 d ago, and current users last used 1 or more ≤30 d ago.

f

Assessed with the question, “During the past 30 d, did anyone refuse to sell you any tobacco products because of your age?” Response options were, “I did not try to buy any tobacco products during the past 30 d” (ie, no attempt), “yes” (ie, unsuccessful attempt), and “no” (successful attempt). The 2 latter groups were combined as 1 category as having made at least 1 attempt.

*

P < .05.

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