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TABLE 2

Weighted Prevalence in the Use of Prescription Medications in the Previous 30 Days by Therapeutic Drug Class Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, Overall and by Gender and Age Group (2013–2014)

Prevalence of Use, % (95% CI)
Overall, n = 44040–5 y6–12 y13–19 y
Girls (n = 775)Boys (n = 828)Girls (n = 746)Boys (n = 817)Girls (n = 640)Boys (n = 598)
Respiratory agents 6.8 (5.8–8.0) 3.9 (2.3–6.6) 5.1 (3.3–7.8)** 5.7 (4.1–8.0) 11.5 (8.9–14.7)* 6.4 (4.2–9.7) 7.0 (4.9–9.9) 
 Bronchodilators 3.5 (3.0–4.1) 2.7 (1.5–4.7) 2.7 (1.5–4.8) 3.0 (1.7–5.5) 5.5 (4.3–6.9)* 3.4 (1.7–7.0)a 3.2 (2.1–5.0) 
  Albuterol 3.0 (2.5–3.6) 2.6 (1.5–4.5) 2.5 (1.4–4.5) 2.6 (1.4–4.8) 4.5 (3.1–6.6) 3.1 (1.4–6.9)a 2.6 (1.8–3.6) 
  Levalbuterol 0.3 (0.1–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.4 (0.1–2.5)a 0.4 (0.2–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)ᵃ 0.2 (0.1–1.1)a 
  Fluticasone and salmeterol 0.1 (0.1–0.3)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.4 (0.2–0.8)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 0.0 
 Antihistamines 1.8 (1.3–2.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.7)a 2.1 (1.1–4.0)a 3.2 (2.1–5.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.7) 2.0 (0.8–5.0)a 
  Cetirizine 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.6)a 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.3)a 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.4)a 1.2 (0.3–4.2)a 
  Loratadine 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.3 (0.1–1.4)a 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 
  Cyproheptadine 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.0 0.8 (0.2–2.7)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 
 Leukotriene modifiers 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.8 (0.4–1.7)a** 0.9 (0.4–1.9)a 4.0 (2.5–6.4)** 1.9 (1.1–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.7)a 
  Montelukast 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.8 (0.4–1.7)a** 0.9 (0.4–1.9)a 4.0 (2.5–6.4)** 1.9 (1.1–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.7)a 
 Respiratory inhalant products 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.4 (0.1–1.5)a 1.3 (0.6–3.0)a 1.0 (0.4–2.4)a 3.1 (2.1–4.5) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 1.4 (0.5–3.7)a 
  Beclomethasone 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.4)a 0.4 (0.1–1.1)a 1.2 (0.5–2.4)a0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.6 (0.1–3.1)a 
  Fluticasone 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.6 (0.2–1.9)a 0.6 (0.2–1.6)a 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 
Psychotherapeutic agentsb 5.0 (4.0–6.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 1.5 (0.5–5.0)a 3.5 (1.8–6.7)a 10.9 (8.7–13.6)** 6.4 (4.1–9.9) 5.7 (3.4–9.5) 
 CNS stimulants 3.3 (2.5–4.4) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 1.1 (0.3–4.3)a 2.2 (1.2–4.1) 9.4 (7.2–12.0)** 1.6 (0.9–3.0) 4.3 (2.3–7.9)** 
  Methylphenidate 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.5 (0.1–2.5)a 5.2 (3.2–8.3)** 0.8 (0.2–2.9)a 1.8 (0.8–3.9)a 
  Lisdexamfetamine 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.2–2.8)a 1.7 (1.0–3.2) 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 1.1 (0.4–2.8)a 
  Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine 0.4 (0.2–0.9)a 0.0 0.6 (0.1–5.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 0.9 (0.4–2.0)a 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.4 (0.1–2.1)a 
 Antidepressants 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.3 (0.5–3.5)a3.8 (1.9–7.6)a 1.3 (0.5–3.7)a** 
  Fluoxetine 0.3 (0.2–0.6) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.1)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 
  Escitalopram 0.2 (0.1–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.1–4.9)a 0.5 (0.1–3.9)a 
  Trazodone 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.0 0.9 (0.2–4.6)a 0.0 
 Antipsychotics 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.7)a 1.9 (1.1–3.3)* 1.2 (0.6–2.5)a 1.1 (0.3–3.3)a 
  Aripiprazole 0.2 (0.1–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.4 (0.1–1.7)a 0.4 (0.1–3.3)a 
  Risperidone 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.7)a 0.9 (0.3–3.1)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.6 (0.2–2.5)a 
  Quetiapine 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.9)a 0.0 
 Anticonvulsants 0.8 (0.3–1.9)a 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 1.0 (0.3–3.6)a 0.4 (0.1–1.4)a 1.7 (0.5–5.6)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 
  Topiramate 0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 0.0 1.1 (0.2–6.7)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 
  Lamotrigine 0.3 (0.1–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 (0.2–4.6)a 0.6 (0.1–3.4)a 
  Divalproex sodium 0.1 (0.0–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.7)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–1.1)ᵃ 
 Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.8 (0.2–2.9)a 0.2 (0.0–1.2)a** 
  Hydroxyzine 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.7 (0.2–3.1)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 
Antibiotics 4.8 (3.7–6.2) 7.0 (5.2–9.4) 5.8 (4.5–7.4) 3.0 (1.6–5.6) 3.5 (2.0–6.1)* 6.6 (3.6–11.7) 3.5 (2.0–6.0)** 
 Penicillins 2.2 (1.6–3.0) 4.5 (3.3–6.1) 3.1 (2.2–4.4) 1.1 (0.5–2.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.8)a 2.6 (1.1–6.0)a 1.1 (0.3–3.8)a** 
  Amoxicillin 1.8 (1.4–2.4) 4.4 (3.2–6.1) 2.9 (2.0–4.3) 0.6 (0.2–1.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.8)a 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 1.1 (0.3–3.8)a 
 Macrolide derivatives 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 1.0 (0.4–2.3)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 1.4 (0.5–3.6)a 0.9 (0.3–2.8)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a
  Azithromycin 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.9 (0.4–2.1)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 1.4 (0.5–3.6)a 0.5 (0.1–2.9)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 
 Cephalosporins 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 0.7 (0.2–3.1)a 0.9 (0.3–2.7)a 0.2 (0.0–1.1)a 0.3 (0.0–2.3)a 0.6 (0.1–4.9)a 0.5 (0.1–2.8)a 
  Cefdinir 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.1–0.8)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 0.3 (0.0–2.3)a 0.0 0.4 (0.1–3.3)a 
Topical agents 3.0 (2.5–3.5) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 1.9 (1.0–3.5) 4.9 (3.2–7.5) 3.7 (1.8–7.4)a 3.7 (1.7–8.0)a 
 Nasal preparations 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.1 (0.0–1.3)a 0.7 (0.3–1.5)a 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 4.2 (2.5–7.1)** 0.8 (0.2–3.1)a 2.0 (0.7–5.5)a 
  Fluticasone nasal 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.0 0.3 (0.1–1.6)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 2.4 (1.1–4.9)a0.6 (0.1–3.0)a 2.0 (0.7–5.5)a 
  Mometasone nasal 0.5 (0.2–0.9)a 0.1 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–1.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.7 (0.7–4.3)a0.2 (0.0–2.0)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 
 Dermatological agents 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)a 0.6 (0.2–1.5)a 1.4 (0.7–3.0)a 0.7 (0.3–1.7)a** 2.8 (1.1–6.9)a 0.9 (0.2–3.1)a 
  Tretinoin topical 0.2 (0.1–0.7)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 0.7 (0.1–4.4)a 0.3 (0.0–2.6)a 
Hormones or hormone modifiers 2.1 (1.5–2.8) 1.0 (0.5–2.1)a 1.1 (0.5–2.6)a** 1.2 (0.5–2.5)a 0.9 (0.2–3.3)a 7.2 (5.3–9.5) 0.7 (0.2–2.1)a** 
 Contraceptivesc 2.5 (1.8–3.5) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 (5.2–9.3) 0.0 
  Ethinyl estradiol–norethindronec 0.9 (0.4–2.1)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 (1.1–5.6)a 0.0 
 Adrenal cortical steroids 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 1.0 (0.5–2.1)a 0.9 (0.4–2.2)a** 0.7 (0.2–2.4)a 0.4 (0.1–1.8)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.6 (0.2–2.0)a** 
  Budesonide 0.3 (0.2–0.7)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.4 (0.2–1.2)a 0.5 (0.1–2.6)a 0.4 (0.1–1.9)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 
Gastrointestinal agents 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 1.6 (0.9–2.6) 1.0 (0.4–2.7)a 1.4 (0.5–3.9)a 2.0 (0.8–4.9)a 1.3 (0.4–3.7)a** 
 PPIs 0.6 (0.3–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.6 (0.1–2.8)a 1.1 (0.4–3.1)a 1.0 (0.2–4.6)a 
  Omeprazole 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.6 (0.1–2.8)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.9 (0.2–4.8)a 
 H2 antagonist 0.5 (0.3–1.0)a 1.4 (0.7–3.1)a 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 0.5 (0.1–2.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a** 
  Ranitidine 0.5 (0.3–1.0)a 1.4 (0.6–3.1)a 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 0.5 (0.1–2.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 
Antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 1.1 (0.3–3.5)a 3.3 (1.9–5.7)** 0.2 (0.0–1.9)a 1.4 (0.5–4.1)a** 
 Clonidine 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 1.0 (0.3–3.5)a 2.1 (0.8–5.0)a 0.2 (0.0–1.9)a 0.9 (0.2–4.5)a 
 Guanfacine 0.4 (0.2–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 1.5 (0.6–3.6)a** 0.0 0.5 (0.1–2.3)a 
Analgesics 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 1.0 (0.4–2.3)a 0.6 (0.2–1.9)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 3.2 (1.6–6.4)a 1.2 (0.6–2.3)a
 Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory agents 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.9 (0.4–2.2)a0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.0 1.8 (0.8–4.2)a 1.0 (0.5–2.2)a 
  Diclofenac 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 (0.1–4.9)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 
 Narcotics 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a0.5 (0.1–1.8)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 1.5 (0.7–3.5)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a** 
  Hydrocodone 0.3 (0.2–0.7)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 1.3 (0.5–3.4)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a 
  Oxycodone 0.2 (0.1–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.2)a 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.6)a 0.0 
Antiemetic agents 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.5 (0.1–1.6)a 1.1 (0.3–3.3)a 0.8 (0.3–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 1.6 (0.8–3.3)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 
 Ondansetron 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.1 (0.0–1.1)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 0.5 (0.1–2.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.5)a 1.1 (0.4–3.2)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 
 Diphenhydramine 0.2 (0.1–0.3)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.0 
 Promethazine 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.4 (0.1–1.8)a0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 
Antidiabetic agents 0.5 (0.2–1.2)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.3 (0.3–5.2)a 1.4 (0.5–3.7)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 
 Metformin 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 1.1 (0.3–3.7)a 0.0 
 Insulin 0.3 (0.1–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.2 (0.3–5.3)a0.3 (0.1–0.6)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 
Prevalence of Use, % (95% CI)
Overall, n = 44040–5 y6–12 y13–19 y
Girls (n = 775)Boys (n = 828)Girls (n = 746)Boys (n = 817)Girls (n = 640)Boys (n = 598)
Respiratory agents 6.8 (5.8–8.0) 3.9 (2.3–6.6) 5.1 (3.3–7.8)** 5.7 (4.1–8.0) 11.5 (8.9–14.7)* 6.4 (4.2–9.7) 7.0 (4.9–9.9) 
 Bronchodilators 3.5 (3.0–4.1) 2.7 (1.5–4.7) 2.7 (1.5–4.8) 3.0 (1.7–5.5) 5.5 (4.3–6.9)* 3.4 (1.7–7.0)a 3.2 (2.1–5.0) 
  Albuterol 3.0 (2.5–3.6) 2.6 (1.5–4.5) 2.5 (1.4–4.5) 2.6 (1.4–4.8) 4.5 (3.1–6.6) 3.1 (1.4–6.9)a 2.6 (1.8–3.6) 
  Levalbuterol 0.3 (0.1–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.4 (0.1–2.5)a 0.4 (0.2–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)ᵃ 0.2 (0.1–1.1)a 
  Fluticasone and salmeterol 0.1 (0.1–0.3)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.4 (0.2–0.8)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 0.0 
 Antihistamines 1.8 (1.3–2.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.7)a 2.1 (1.1–4.0)a 3.2 (2.1–5.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.7) 2.0 (0.8–5.0)a 
  Cetirizine 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.9 (0.3–2.6)a 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.3)a 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.7 (0.4–1.4)a 1.2 (0.3–4.2)a 
  Loratadine 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.3 (0.1–1.4)a 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 
  Cyproheptadine 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.0 0.8 (0.2–2.7)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 
 Leukotriene modifiers 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.8 (0.4–1.7)a** 0.9 (0.4–1.9)a 4.0 (2.5–6.4)** 1.9 (1.1–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.7)a 
  Montelukast 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.8 (0.4–1.7)a** 0.9 (0.4–1.9)a 4.0 (2.5–6.4)** 1.9 (1.1–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.7)a 
 Respiratory inhalant products 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.4 (0.1–1.5)a 1.3 (0.6–3.0)a 1.0 (0.4–2.4)a 3.1 (2.1–4.5) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 1.4 (0.5–3.7)a 
  Beclomethasone 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.4)a 0.4 (0.1–1.1)a 1.2 (0.5–2.4)a0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.6 (0.1–3.1)a 
  Fluticasone 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.6 (0.2–1.9)a 0.6 (0.2–1.6)a 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 
Psychotherapeutic agentsb 5.0 (4.0–6.3) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 1.5 (0.5–5.0)a 3.5 (1.8–6.7)a 10.9 (8.7–13.6)** 6.4 (4.1–9.9) 5.7 (3.4–9.5) 
 CNS stimulants 3.3 (2.5–4.4) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 1.1 (0.3–4.3)a 2.2 (1.2–4.1) 9.4 (7.2–12.0)** 1.6 (0.9–3.0) 4.3 (2.3–7.9)** 
  Methylphenidate 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.5 (0.1–2.5)a 5.2 (3.2–8.3)** 0.8 (0.2–2.9)a 1.8 (0.8–3.9)a 
  Lisdexamfetamine 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.2–2.8)a 1.7 (1.0–3.2) 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 1.1 (0.4–2.8)a 
  Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine 0.4 (0.2–0.9)a 0.0 0.6 (0.1–5.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 0.9 (0.4–2.0)a 0.3 (0.1–1.0)a 0.4 (0.1–2.1)a 
 Antidepressants 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.3 (0.5–3.5)a3.8 (1.9–7.6)a 1.3 (0.5–3.7)a** 
  Fluoxetine 0.3 (0.2–0.6) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.7 (0.2–2.1)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 
  Escitalopram 0.2 (0.1–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.1–4.9)a 0.5 (0.1–3.9)a 
  Trazodone 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.0 0.9 (0.2–4.6)a 0.0 
 Antipsychotics 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.7)a 1.9 (1.1–3.3)* 1.2 (0.6–2.5)a 1.1 (0.3–3.3)a 
  Aripiprazole 0.2 (0.1–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.4 (0.1–1.7)a 0.4 (0.1–3.3)a 
  Risperidone 0.4 (0.3–0.7) 0.0 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.7)a 0.9 (0.3–3.1)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.6 (0.2–2.5)a 
  Quetiapine 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.9)a 0.0 
 Anticonvulsants 0.8 (0.3–1.9)a 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 1.0 (0.3–3.6)a 0.4 (0.1–1.4)a 1.7 (0.5–5.6)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 
  Topiramate 0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.5)a 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 0.0 1.1 (0.2–6.7)a 0.3 (0.1–1.5)a 
  Lamotrigine 0.3 (0.1–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 (0.2–4.6)a 0.6 (0.1–3.4)a 
  Divalproex sodium 0.1 (0.0–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.7)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–1.1)ᵃ 
 Anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.8 (0.2–2.9)a 0.2 (0.0–1.2)a** 
  Hydroxyzine 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.7 (0.2–3.1)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 
Antibiotics 4.8 (3.7–6.2) 7.0 (5.2–9.4) 5.8 (4.5–7.4) 3.0 (1.6–5.6) 3.5 (2.0–6.1)* 6.6 (3.6–11.7) 3.5 (2.0–6.0)** 
 Penicillins 2.2 (1.6–3.0) 4.5 (3.3–6.1) 3.1 (2.2–4.4) 1.1 (0.5–2.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.8)a 2.6 (1.1–6.0)a 1.1 (0.3–3.8)a** 
  Amoxicillin 1.8 (1.4–2.4) 4.4 (3.2–6.1) 2.9 (2.0–4.3) 0.6 (0.2–1.6)a 1.4 (0.7–2.8)a 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 1.1 (0.3–3.8)a 
 Macrolide derivatives 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 1.0 (0.4–2.3)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 1.4 (0.5–3.6)a 0.9 (0.3–2.8)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a
  Azithromycin 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.9 (0.4–2.1)a 1.2 (0.4–3.8)a 1.4 (0.5–3.6)a 0.5 (0.1–2.9)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 
 Cephalosporins 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 0.7 (0.2–3.1)a 0.9 (0.3–2.7)a 0.2 (0.0–1.1)a 0.3 (0.0–2.3)a 0.6 (0.1–4.9)a 0.5 (0.1–2.8)a 
  Cefdinir 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.1–0.8)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 0.3 (0.0–2.3)a 0.0 0.4 (0.1–3.3)a 
Topical agents 3.0 (2.5–3.5) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 1.9 (1.0–3.5) 4.9 (3.2–7.5) 3.7 (1.8–7.4)a 3.7 (1.7–8.0)a 
 Nasal preparations 1.5 (1.0–2.3) 0.1 (0.0–1.3)a 0.7 (0.3–1.5)a 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 4.2 (2.5–7.1)** 0.8 (0.2–3.1)a 2.0 (0.7–5.5)a 
  Fluticasone nasal 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.0 0.3 (0.1–1.6)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 2.4 (1.1–4.9)a0.6 (0.1–3.0)a 2.0 (0.7–5.5)a 
  Mometasone nasal 0.5 (0.2–0.9)a 0.1 (0.0–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–1.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.7 (0.7–4.3)a0.2 (0.0–2.0)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 
 Dermatological agents 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)a 0.6 (0.2–1.5)a 1.4 (0.7–3.0)a 0.7 (0.3–1.7)a** 2.8 (1.1–6.9)a 0.9 (0.2–3.1)a 
  Tretinoin topical 0.2 (0.1–0.7)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 0.7 (0.1–4.4)a 0.3 (0.0–2.6)a 
Hormones or hormone modifiers 2.1 (1.5–2.8) 1.0 (0.5–2.1)a 1.1 (0.5–2.6)a** 1.2 (0.5–2.5)a 0.9 (0.2–3.3)a 7.2 (5.3–9.5) 0.7 (0.2–2.1)a** 
 Contraceptivesc 2.5 (1.8–3.5) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 (5.2–9.3) 0.0 
  Ethinyl estradiol–norethindronec 0.9 (0.4–2.1)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 (1.1–5.6)a 0.0 
 Adrenal cortical steroids 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 1.0 (0.5–2.1)a 0.9 (0.4–2.2)a** 0.7 (0.2–2.4)a 0.4 (0.1–1.8)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.6 (0.2–2.0)a** 
  Budesonide 0.3 (0.2–0.7)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.4 (0.2–1.2)a 0.5 (0.1–2.6)a 0.4 (0.1–1.9)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 
Gastrointestinal agents 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 1.6 (0.9–2.6) 1.0 (0.4–2.7)a 1.4 (0.5–3.9)a 2.0 (0.8–4.9)a 1.3 (0.4–3.7)a** 
 PPIs 0.6 (0.3–1.3)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a 0.5 (0.2–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.6 (0.1–2.8)a 1.1 (0.4–3.1)a 1.0 (0.2–4.6)a 
  Omeprazole 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 0.6 (0.1–2.8)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.9 (0.2–4.8)a 
 H2 antagonist 0.5 (0.3–1.0)a 1.4 (0.7–3.1)a 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 0.5 (0.1–2.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a** 
  Ranitidine 0.5 (0.3–1.0)a 1.4 (0.6–3.1)a 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 0.5 (0.1–2.1)a 0.3 (0.1–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 
Antiadrenergic agents, centrally acting 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 1.1 (0.3–3.5)a 3.3 (1.9–5.7)** 0.2 (0.0–1.9)a 1.4 (0.5–4.1)a** 
 Clonidine 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.0 0.2 (0.0–1.3)a 1.0 (0.3–3.5)a 2.1 (0.8–5.0)a 0.2 (0.0–1.9)a 0.9 (0.2–4.5)a 
 Guanfacine 0.4 (0.2–0.9)a 0.0 0.0 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 1.5 (0.6–3.6)a** 0.0 0.5 (0.1–2.3)a 
Analgesics 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 1.0 (0.4–2.3)a 0.6 (0.2–1.9)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 3.2 (1.6–6.4)a 1.2 (0.6–2.3)a
 Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory agents 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.9 (0.4–2.2)a0.3 (0.1–1.1)a 0.0 1.8 (0.8–4.2)a 1.0 (0.5–2.2)a 
  Diclofenac 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 (0.1–4.9)a 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 
 Narcotics 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a0.5 (0.1–1.8)a 0.2 (0.0–0.7)a 1.5 (0.7–3.5)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a** 
  Hydrocodone 0.3 (0.2–0.7)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.6)a 0.2 (0.0–1.0)a 0.1 (0.0–0.8)a 1.3 (0.5–3.4)a 0.2 (0.0–0.9)a 
  Oxycodone 0.2 (0.1–0.5)a 0.0 0.0 0.3 (0.0–2.2)a 0.0 0.8 (0.3–2.6)a 0.0 
Antiemetic agents 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.5 (0.1–1.6)a 1.1 (0.3–3.3)a 0.8 (0.3–2.4)a 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 1.6 (0.8–3.3)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 
 Ondansetron 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.1 (0.0–1.1)a 0.7 (0.2–2.8)a 0.5 (0.1–2.3)a 0.1 (0.0–0.5)a 1.1 (0.4–3.2)a 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 
 Diphenhydramine 0.2 (0.1–0.3)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.0 0.1 (0.0–1.2)a 0.2 (0.0–0.8)a 0.5 (0.2–1.6)a 0.0 
 Promethazine 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 0.1 (0.0–0.9)a 0.4 (0.1–1.8)a0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 
Antidiabetic agents 0.5 (0.2–1.2)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.3 (0.3–5.2)a 1.4 (0.5–3.7)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 
 Metformin 0.2 (0.1–0.6)a 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.4)a 1.1 (0.3–3.7)a 0.0 
 Insulin 0.3 (0.1–0.8)a 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0–0.7)a 1.2 (0.3–5.3)a0.3 (0.1–0.6)a 0.1 (0.0–1.0)a 

Estimates are weighted to account for differential probabilities of selection and differential nonresponse. H2, histamine2; PPI, proton pump inhibitors.

a

Estimates are unreliable; relative SE >30%.

b

Derived from Multum classification of psychotherapeutic agents, CNS stimulants, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics.

c

Among girls only.

**

P < .01; * P < .05 by using logistic regressions to test differences between girls and boys.

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