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TABLE 1

Buprenorphine-Naloxone Exposures in Children <6 Years Old Before (pre), During (Transition), and After (Post) Transition to UDP: January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2016

Pre-UDP, n = 2611Transition to UDP, n = 1382Post-UDP, n = 2224Total, n = 6217
Age Median (IQR) 2 (1.5–2) 2 (1.5–2) 2 (1.4–2) 2 (1.5–2) 
Sex, n (%) Male 1406 (53.8) 709 (51.3) 1100 (49.5) 3215 (51.7) 
Unknown 20 (0.8) 5 (0.4) 2 (<0.1) 27 (<0.1) 
Medical outcome, n (%) No effect 583 (22.3) 339 (24.5) 518 (23.3) 1440 (23.2) 
Minor effects 995 (38.1) 534 (38.6) 852 (38.3) 2381 (38.3) 
Moderate effects 470 (18.0) 263 (19.0) 490 (22.0) 1223 (19.7) 
Major effects 49 (1.9) 28 (2.0) 37 (1.7) 114 (1.8) 
Deaths 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 3 (<0.1) 
Not followed or unrelated effects 511 (19.6) 216 (15.6) 324 (14.6) 1051 (16.9) 
Unknown 2 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 2 (<0.1) 5 (<0.1) 
Disposition, n (%) Treated or evaluated and released 595 (22.8) 416 (30.1) 590 (26.5) 1601 (25.8) 
Admitted to critical care unit 476 (18.2) 338 (24.5) 629 (28.3) 1443 (23.2) 
Admitted to noncritical care unit 455 (17.4) 383 (27.7) 668 (30.0) 1506 (24.2) 
Patient refused referral or did not arrive at health care facility 85 (3.3) 57 (4.1) 90 (4.0) 232 (3.7) 
Patient lost to follow-up 766 (29.3) 83 (6.0) 140 (6.3) 989 (15.9) 
Missing 234 (9.0) 105 (7.6) 107 (4.8) 446 (7.2) 
Pre-UDP, n = 2611Transition to UDP, n = 1382Post-UDP, n = 2224Total, n = 6217
Age Median (IQR) 2 (1.5–2) 2 (1.5–2) 2 (1.4–2) 2 (1.5–2) 
Sex, n (%) Male 1406 (53.8) 709 (51.3) 1100 (49.5) 3215 (51.7) 
Unknown 20 (0.8) 5 (0.4) 2 (<0.1) 27 (<0.1) 
Medical outcome, n (%) No effect 583 (22.3) 339 (24.5) 518 (23.3) 1440 (23.2) 
Minor effects 995 (38.1) 534 (38.6) 852 (38.3) 2381 (38.3) 
Moderate effects 470 (18.0) 263 (19.0) 490 (22.0) 1223 (19.7) 
Major effects 49 (1.9) 28 (2.0) 37 (1.7) 114 (1.8) 
Deaths 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 3 (<0.1) 
Not followed or unrelated effects 511 (19.6) 216 (15.6) 324 (14.6) 1051 (16.9) 
Unknown 2 (<0.1) 1 (<0.1) 2 (<0.1) 5 (<0.1) 
Disposition, n (%) Treated or evaluated and released 595 (22.8) 416 (30.1) 590 (26.5) 1601 (25.8) 
Admitted to critical care unit 476 (18.2) 338 (24.5) 629 (28.3) 1443 (23.2) 
Admitted to noncritical care unit 455 (17.4) 383 (27.7) 668 (30.0) 1506 (24.2) 
Patient refused referral or did not arrive at health care facility 85 (3.3) 57 (4.1) 90 (4.0) 232 (3.7) 
Patient lost to follow-up 766 (29.3) 83 (6.0) 140 (6.3) 989 (15.9) 
Missing 234 (9.0) 105 (7.6) 107 (4.8) 446 (7.2) 

IQR, interquartile range.

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